A lesson is the main form of organization of training in the course "social studies"
According to the didacts (MN Skatkin, PI Pidkasisty, etc.), the lesson is the basic form of the organization of training. In this form, all the components of the educational process are presented: goal, content, means, methods, organization and management activities, all its didactic elements. The essence and purpose of the lesson in the process of learning as an integral dynamic system is reduced to the collective individual interaction of the teacher and students. Features of the lesson as an organizational form of learning are determined by the purpose and place of each lesson in the whole system of the educational process. The lesson is a part of the course of the subject, topic, topic and takes its place in them, solves its didactic goals.
The structure of the lesson should be understood as the ratio of the elements of the lesson in their specific sequence and the relationship between them. Scientists believe that the structure of the lesson should reflect the patterns of the learning process, the independent thinking activity of students, the logic of teaching, the activities of the teacher and students.
Applied to the social science course, LN Bogolyubov calls the following elements of the lesson:
• setting before the students the purpose of the lesson;
• The organization of students' perception, awareness, and fixing in their memory the initial information (learning new material);
• the organization of the assimilation of the methods of activity on the basis of the information obtained by reproducing and applying it;
• organization of creative application of knowledge and methods of activity in new situations;
• generalization of the acquired and introduction into its system of existing knowledge and experience (repetition and systematization);
• monitoring the performance of students.
There are several approaches to defining the typology of lessons, their classification. For example, on the basis of the didactic goal (IT Ogorodnikov, IN Kazantsev); the purpose of the organization of classes, the content and methods of conducting lessons (MI Makhmutov); the main stages of the educational process (S.V. Ivanov); didactic tasks, which are solved in the lesson (NM Yakovlev, AM Sochor); methods of teaching (II Borisov); ways to organize the educational activities of students (FM Kiryushkin). Most educators believe that the type of the lesson is determined by the basic didactic task being solved in class.
In the "Modern Lesson MI Makhmutov proposes classifying lessons for the purpose of the organization, determined by the general objective goal, the nature of the content of the material being studied, and the level of student training. In accordance with this approach, the following five types of lesson are distinguished: lessons learned in learning new material (type 1); lessons for improving knowledge, skills and habits (type 2); lessons of generalization and systematization (type 3); combined lessons (type 4); lessons of control and correction of knowledge, skills (type 5).
In the practice of teaching social studies, such types of lessons as introductory lessons were disseminated; a lesson in the study of new teaching material; application of knowledge and skills; repeating-generalizing; systematization and correction of knowledge and skills; verification of knowledge and skills; combined lesson.
There are also forms of lessons. According to philosophers, form is an outward expression of any content. It expresses the internal structure, structure, a certain order of the object or the order of the process. According to VA Kanks, form is a way of organizing the whole, and structure is a way of organizing the system. The form corresponds with the content, which is the totality of the parts of the whole. As applied to learning, the form of the lesson is conditioned by the content, methods, methods and means, as well as the activities of the students. At the same time, the leading ones in this framework are methodical techniques that can be manifested in lessons in various combinations.
There are also such concepts as the forms of training (collective, frontal, individual work of students in the lesson) and the form of the organization of training - any kind of class (lesson, subject circle, optional and additional classes, etc.).
At the lessons of social studies in the graduating class, the principle of block study of the topic (section) is increasingly used, allowing to use and combine various forms of the lesson (lectures, seminars, laboratory and practical exercises, the protection of thematic assignments, final interviews, etc.) Among the varieties of the lesson, non-traditional forms of lessons have recently become widely accepted: educational, business and role-playing games ("round tables", "space bridges", "press conferences", etc.). All these forms are mainly built on gaming.
The game is primarily a type of activity in conditions of situations aimed at recreating and assimilating social experience, in which self-management of behavior develops and improves. The structure of the game as an activity includes goal-setting, planning, goal realization, analysis of results in which the personality realizes itself as a subject.
Gaming activities are used:
- as independent technologies for mastering the concept, topic, section of the academic subject;
- as elements of a more extensive technology;
- as a lesson (lesson) or part of it (introduction, explanation, fastening, exercise, control);
- as an out-of-class technology.
An essential feature of the pedagogical game: clearly stated goal of teaching and its corresponding pedagogical result, which can be justified, are highlighted in an explicit form and characterized by an educational and cognitive orientation.
A learning game is a form of organizing active collective cognitive activity of students, aimed at assimilation of specific knowledge, skills, their application in the process of achieving a game goal in an artificially simulated game situation.
M. V. Clarin classifies educational games on didactic tasks (games for communicating new knowledge, fixing, checking, repeating, etc.); on their belonging to the sphere of education (reproductive, constructive, creative, etc.), on the basis of the actual game activity.
The requirements for the modern lesson are most fully formulated by IP Podlasym. These are:
• Use of the latest achievements of science, advanced pedagogical practice, the construction of a lesson based on the patterns of the educational process;
• the implementation at the lesson in the optimal ratio of all the didactic principles and rules;
• Ensuring appropriate conditions for the productive cognitive activity of students, taking into account their interests and needs;
• Establishment of students' perceived intersubject, intra-course relationships;
• communication with previously learned knowledge and existing skills, reliance on the achieved level of development of students;
• Motivation and activation of development of all spheres of personality;
• the consistency and emotionality of all stages of teaching and upbringing activities
• effective use of pedagogical tools;
• Link to life, personal experiences of students
• formation of practically necessary knowledge, skills, rational methods of thinking and activity;
• the formation of the ability to learn, the need for self-education;
• thorough diagnosis, forecasting, design and planning of each lesson.
Taking into account the basic requirements for the lesson allows you to analyze any lesson of social science conducted by another teacher, as well as to self-analyze your own lesson. The scheme of such analysis is proposed by L. N. Bogolyubov.
In preparing for the lesson, the teacher is given a great help by the thematic planning, designed to determine the most optimal ways of realizing the goals of studying the topic (section) in the system of lessons. The design of the educational process is possible on the basis of an expanded thematic module that includes structural components: the theme, the terms of its study, the goals of education, upbringing and development within the topic, the planned learning outcomes, the plan for explaining the new material, the types and forms of lessons, the means of teaching, basic knowledge and skills, basic facts, concepts, theoretical positions, lesson ideas, basic skills, types of educational and cognitive activity of students, forms of control. Each thematic module is an integral part of the knowledge system. All modules are united by a set of leading theoretical ideas. The structural components of the thematic module can be changed at the discretion of the teacher.
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