List of materials and equipment for early age groups
The group should be equipped with equipment, materials and toys for the comprehensive development of young children. This is ensured by the variety of materials and complexity. It should be borne in mind that the grouping of materials and toys in different areas of development of children is largely conditional, since all of them can perform a general developmental function. At the same time, materials and equipment can be specified for each direction of development of children.
Materials and equipment for the physical development of children . The group must have various adaptations that promote motor activity children (crawling, climbing, walking, running, jumping). These are:
• rocking toys;
• modular structures of various shapes, made of different materials;
• Walking tracks that specify a direction change;
• Massage lanes and mats with different cover;
• dry pool & quot ;;
All these adaptations encourage children to climb, climb, crawl, creep, step over, jump, etc. ..
The group must have toys and materials that develop small and large motor skills :
• balls of different sizes, including massage;
• hoops, rings;
• toys that can be rolled, pushed;
• multi-colored objects of various shapes for stringing;
• boards with grooves, hooks, rods and hammers;
• special devices - stands, simulators - designed for the development of various movements of the hand and finger brush (zippers, buttons and loops, hooks, laces, etc.)
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• boxes with different lids and slots, piggy banks.
Materials and toys for the social and personal development of children :
• photos of children, families, family albums;
• photos, albums that reflect the life of a group and a children's institution;
• visual aids (books, illustrations) reflecting different activities of children and adults;
• Pictures and photos depicting different emotional states of people (cheerful, sad, laughing, crying, angry, surprised, frightened, etc.), their actions, various everyday situations;
• visual material and toys that promote the development of tolerance (pictures, dolls depicting representatives of different races and nationalities, pictures, dolls depicting sick children and animals, etc.);
• audio and video materials about the lives of children and adults.
Materials and toys for the process and story games:
• Character toys: dolls of different sizes in clothes that can be removed and put on, puppets, anthropomorphic animals from different materials;
• stationary and table doll furniture (tables, chairs, benches, cupboards, cribs, etc.);
• stationary and desktop kits kitchen (a stove, a table, a refrigerator, a buffet, plates for cutting food, etc.);
• Toys for playing various scenes:
- feeding the dolls (dishes, cutlery);
- bedding (pads, sheets, blankets);
- bathing (baths, bottles, sponges, napkins);
- treatment (toy sets, which include a thermometer, a syringe, a tube for listening, pieces of cotton, a bandage, etc.)
- walks (strollers with a pillow and a blanket, cars);
- cleaning (sponge, soap, bowl or sink, scoop, whisk, napkins);
- Games in the hairdresser's (a mirror, a comb, ribbons, bottles);
- Games in store (scales, toy calculator, cash register, "money", models of products, etc.);
- games in the "circus": (clockwork toys: monkey, chicken, "hare with a drum", "Thumbelina", "dolls-mittens, masks");
- Games in soldiers (corresponding sets of toys), etc.;
• building kits for making furniture of houses, paths, etc.;
• machines of different sizes, colors and purposes ("ambulance", fire truck, trucks, cars, racing cars, crane, airplanes, boats, train, tram, trolley, etc.)
• children's phones;
• substitute items in boxes (cubes, sticks, cones, acorns, balls, details of pyramids and designers, curly coils, etc.);
• large modules for the construction of cars, trains, houses, etc.,
• large and small boxes with slots in the form of windows, from which you can also arrange trains, tunnels, houses, etc.
Materials and toys for the cognitive and speech development of children . In the group must be household items and toys that stimulate the development of objective activity. Osh should be made from a variety of materials, have different sizes, color, texture, stimulate the performance of various actions. It is necessary to provide for the presence of identical sets of toys so that children can imitate each other in actions with objects and not quarrel over them.
Among toys and materials that promote the development of objective activity, should be:
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• Pyramids and rods for stringing with colored elements of various shapes for individual occupations;
• large outdoor pyramid for joint games with peers;
• Matryoshka dolls
• sets of cubes and solid bodies (cylinders, bars, balls, disks);
• toys-tools (sovochki, scoops with sets of molds, fishing rods, nets, scoops, rakes, hammers, fans, etc.);
• sets of various volumetric inserts;
• mosaics, frame-liners with various geometric shapes, puzzles;
• Fun toys (sounding, moving: crooks, bells, pshchalki, noise boxes, biting hens, etc.);
• Clockwork toys (big and small tops, cars, etc.).
Materials and toys for the development of cognitive activity , experimentation:
• tables-pallets with sand and water;
• floating and drowning objects (sponges, planks, metal objects, objects made of rubber, plastics, etc.);
• a variety of household items for research (clock, coffee grinder, telephone, etc.);
• appliances, including children's (loupes, binoculars, kaleidoscopes, mirrors, electric flashlights, metronome, magnetic toys);
• Toys of different materials and different densities (from fabrics, rubber, wooden, plastic, etc.), soft toys from different fabrics, filled with various materials (cereals, paper, scraps, etc.);
• plastic materials (clay, dough);
• materials for pouring and transfusion (empty plastic bottles, cans, beans, peas, pasta, etc.);
• tubes for blowing, poking;
• toys with secrets and surprises (boxes and pencil cases with movable lid, boxes with different clasps, puzzles, sets for games, including solving problem situations);
• toys with light and sound effect;
• "magic bag" filled with small objects and toys;
• toys and objects for observation (electric railway, serpentine road, overpasses with moving toys, soap bubbles, etc.);
• Books, postcards, albums, audio and video materials that introduce children to the phenomena of nature, the life of animals and plants.
Materials for Speech Development :
• books with pictures (collections of nursery rhymes, rhymes, jokes, songs, tales, stories);
• Subject and story pictures, sets of pictures for grouping (clothes, dishes, furniture, animals, transportation, professions, toys, etc.);
• materials with the image of various signs (magnetic alphabet, cubes, volumetric figures with letters, numbers, maps, etc.);
• split pictures, sets of paired pictures;
• a series of pictures to establish a sequence of actions and events (fabulous, everyday situations);
• Lotto, dominoes
• audio cassettes with records of children's songs, fairy tales;
Materials and equipment for the artistic and aesthetic development of children .
Groups should have general-purpose materials and equipment:
• books with colorful illustrations, reproductions;
• albums with color photographs of works of arts and crafts;
• albums with pictures or photos of musical instruments;
• musical instruments (piano, accordion, accordion, guitar);
• stand for demonstration of children's drawings and crafts;
• containers for storing materials for visual activity.
Materials for visual activity :
• sets of color pencils, markers, colored chalks;
• paints (gouache, watercolor, food colorings);
• Brushes for drawing, for glue;
• palette, containers for water, paints, glue;
• wipes for wiping hands and paints;
• paper of different formats, colors and textures, cardboard for drawing and applications;
• clay, plasticine (not clinging to the hands);
• seals, sponges, cotton swabs for patterning;
• stencils for painting over;
• Drawing boards with crayons, stands for working with clay, clay, dough;
• aprons and sleeves for children.
All materials should be suitable for work: pencils are sharpened, felt pens are fresh, brushes are serviceable and clean.
Materials for the musical development of children:
• toy musical instruments: tambourines, drums, ratchets, triangles, maracas, spoons, bells, pipes, metalophones, pianos;
• toys with a fixed melody (music boxes, barrel organ, electric music toys with sets of melodies, sound books, postcards);
• audio (a player with a set of records, a tape recorder, a music center, sets of floppy disks with records of musical works).
Materials for theatrical activities :
• equipment for playing scenes and performances (sets of dolls, toy characters of fairy tales, screens for puppet show, costumes, masks, theatrical attributes, etc.);
• carnival costumes, masks;
• flanelegraph with a set of characters and scenery;
• different types of theaters (bib-ba-boo, table-top, magnetic, shadow);
• audio and video facilities for demonstration of children's performances, cartoons.
Equipment and toys on the playground:
• The hill;
• Toys for impellent activity: balls, carts, toys for pushing;
• toys for playing in the sandbox (pails, molds, scoops, sovochki);
• equipment and toys for playing with water in the summer (inflatable pool, water basins, floating toys, nets, etc.).
The child's development environment is a complex of material, technical, sanitary and hygienic, ergonomic, aesthetic, psychological and pedagogical conditions that ensure the organization of the life of children and adults in a pre-school educational institution.
Material-technical and sanitary-hygienic conditions constitute the primary basis for organizing the activity of a pre-school institution. Necessary requirements for material and technical conditions include the availability of facilities for children in preschool, fire safety, lighting, conditions for holding regime moments, catering, medical procedures, as well as requirements for the implementation of the educational process. The living environment should provide comfortable emotional state of the kids, personify a home cosiness, both for children and adults. The living space in the group should allow children to freely engage in various activities. This is facilitated by the zoning of the group room.
The content of the developing subject environment must meet the needs of the actual and prospective development of children. This is provided by a variety of subjects, complexity and variety of materials and equipment. The development environment must be flexible and dynamic, meet the changing needs and opportunities of children.
The environment must be secure. It is organized in such a way as to prevent the possibility of accidents and injuries and at the same time not restrict the freedom of children.
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