Simulation is the process of creating models, circuits, symbolic or real analogues that reflect the essential properties of more complex objects (prototypes). This process serves as a research tool for studying certain aspects and properties of a prototype. The method of modeling is a general scientific method of study, in which the object of cognition itself is studied, and its image in the form of a so-called model (from modele - sample, for example, the ideal student, the ideal group), but the research result is transferred from the model to the object. The study of an object is done through the study of another object, in some respects similar to the first, with a subsequent transfer to the first object of the results of the study of the second. The latter is called the model of the first.
Simulation allows us to identify the discrepancy between learning outcomes and educational goals. You can also consider the method or technology of learning as a model of due, i.e. normative model embodying a general idea of the system of methodical methods, and the content of education as a pedagogical model of social experience. Modeling underlies the processes of building educational models. The general idea of modeling finds its concretization in the project of pedagogical activity. As a rule, the project contains specific norms of such activity, addressed to practice.
Content analysis method
Content analysis (from English content - content, concept analysis - from Latin concept - concept) is a method for qualitatively quantitative analysis of the contents of documents in order to identify or measure the various facts and trends reflected in these documents. The peculiarity of content analysis is that within the framework of this method, documents are studied in their social context. Content analysis can be used as a basic research method (for example, content analysis of the text when studying the public orientation of students), parallel, i.e. in combination with other methods (for example, in the study of the effectiveness of demonstration of information virtual presentations), subsidiary, or control ( for example, when classifying students' answers to open questions in the process of attestation, at a colloquium). The main idea embodied in this method is to enter new content through structuring, conceptualization and problematization.
In psychological and pedagogical practice, not every document can become an object of content analysis. It is necessary that the investigated content allows setting a unique rule for reliable fixation of the required characteristics (the formalization principle), and also that the content elements of the researcher that are interested in the researcher meet with sufficient frequency (the principle of statistical significance). Most often, as the objects of content analysis, press reports, radio, television, minutes of meetings, letters, orders, orders, as well as data of free interviews and open questions of questionnaires. In the educational system, the objects of content analysis are cases (problem professional situations), analytical reviews, various reports, curricula, teaching and methodological complexes and other text documents.
The main areas of application of content analysis: the identification of what existed before the analyzed material (text) and that in one way or another received a reflection in it (the text as an indicator of certain aspects of the studied object - the surrounding reality, the author or the addressee); the definition of what exists only in the text as such; Identification of what will exist after the text, i.e. after its perception by the addressee.
When working with material, the content-analysis method usually distinguishes three stages.
1. Introduction to the context:
- general acquaintance with the content of the text (for example, analysis of the competencies prescribed in the document);
- stating questions on misunderstanding, making clarifications, clarifications;
- the primary work with the text, then the analysis, depending on the tasks facing the researchers.
2. Conducting content analysis:
- conceptualization; The paradigmatic approach is used, according to which the studied features of the analyzed material (the content of the problem, the causes of its occurrence, the relationship with identical problems, solutions, etc.) are considered as a certain organized structure;
- the structuring of the material (text) from the point of view of the accepted concept.
- categorization - introduction of roles (expert, manager, teacher, trainee) and role identification of experts; analysis of the material from the position of a given role of the general concept-hypothesis, fixing the results.
3. Analyzing the results:
- the integration of disparate data;
- an estimation of necessary indicators, their selection and classification;
- prioritization, comparison with a hypothetical model.
The final result of the analysis is a holistic view of the problem being investigated, the use of the data obtained to find its solution.
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