Methods of Social Pedagogy
Basic concepts : general, general scientific and private, special methods, theoretical, empirical, special and mathematical methods, methods of studying the potential of the society; methods of developing the potential of the society ; methods for realizing the potential of the society; methods of solving problems of the individual with the help of the potential of the society.
Social pedagogy as a science reveals dependence not only on the basic laws and principles realized in this branch of pedagogical science, but also on the ways of solving social and pedagogical problems.
Its theoretical basis is dialectical materialism and therefore a principled approach to social and pedagogical research is determined by the requirements of the dialectical method. It involves a comprehensive study of social and pedagogical phenomena in all relationships and relations with the surrounding reality, consideration of the studied subject in development, the disclosure of existing contradictions, the unity and struggle of opposites, the transition of quantitative changes to qualitative ones. Like all humanities, social pedagogy has a complex structure of methods:
- Firstly, social pedagogy as a branch of pedagogical science makes full use of the methods of general pedagogy - methods of instruction and methods of upbringing, which form the basis of social and pedagogical knowledge;
Secondly, social pedagogy realizes the methods of other sciences (psychology, sociology, mathematics) for its own purposes, primarily for studying social pedagogical phenomena and processing the data obtained;
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- Thirdly, social pedagogy, being an independent science, has its own special methods: methods for studying the pedagogical potential of the society; methods of implementing the pedagogical potential of the society, methods of developing (restoring) the pedagogical potential of the society; methods of solving problems of socialization of the person.
Thus, having a set of own principles and methods, social pedagogy allows in practice to implement a social and pedagogical approach to professional activity.
The general orientation when using the methods of the socio-pedagogical approach is due to the theoretical notions according to which the interaction between the individual and the society in the process of its socialization and various derivatives of it have the greatest effect.
The study of methods relating to the socio-pedagogical approach showed that their content, place and role in the general classification are determined by the integrative nature of the theory and practice of the theoretical foundation itself-social pedagogy. On this basis, you can select universal, general scientific and special methods .
It is established that the universal, or philosophical, method, represented as the unity of the world outlook and methodological position of the subject of social pedagogy, has not undergone significant changes to date.
The study of the role of general scientific methods in the investigated problem showed a high intensity of their application, and in particular, such as analysis, analogy, modeling, design, training, education, observation, questioning, etc.
Special methods of cognition and transformation of individual areas of the real world, inherent in this or that particular system of knowledge, constitute private, special methods. The interdisciplinary, integrative nature of the theory and practice of social pedagogy expands the arsenal of methods through general scientific and special ones.
Analysis of practical experience of specialists realizing the tasks of social pedagogy made it possible to distinguish four main groups of methods used in social pedagogy: theoretical , empirical , special and math (Figure 2.1).
Theoretical methods allow for the external side of social and pedagogical phenomena inherent in professional activity as a whole, to consider their essence, to find common and special in individual, to discover internal connections and patterns.Empirical methods are characterized mainly by indirect influence and influence on the state of personality through the mechanism of socio-pedagogical regulation, its receptivity to the effects of the social environment. Among the empirical along with methods of collecting information (psychological and sociological) are pedagogical as methods of influence on the person.
Science and practice established that the socio-pedagogical impact is directed at the implementation of primarily educational and educational goals with the help of society. Thanks to these influences, the assistance that specialists provide to individuals contributes to the development of personal and resource characteristics that enable them to solve problems arising in their life independently.
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That is why the socio-pedagogical impact is largely educational and educational, and its scientific provision requires the use of a variety of pedagogical methods, in particular: teaching methods and methods of education.
Fig. 2.1. Methods used in social pedagogy, and special methods of social pedagogy
They closely intertwined with the general methods of social and pedagogical influence, even became their permanent components. Teaching methods, implemented in social and pedagogical activity - is an oral presentation of the training material, discussion of the studied material, demonstration, exercise (repetition), practical work. This is always a series of specific actions (mental and practical), combined in groups, receptions, which are performed in a certain sequence. Methods of upbringing represent a unified integrity in which specific actions, receptions of two of its subjects - the educator or specialist, on the one hand, and the pupil or the client - on the other are inseparably linked. Without the interrelated, mutually reinforced actions of these two subjects, the specialist's attempts to use these methods of upbringing in the provision of assistance remain unsuccessful.
As it was revealed, the most widespread view at the present time is that the methods of upbringing in the field of social and pedagogical activity are differentiated into methods of education of consciousness and methods of behavior education means society. However, this introduces confusion in the theory and practice of education, since it is well known that consciousness and behavior are formed only in unity.
The empirical methods include methods of collecting social and pedagogical information. To this end, methods of psychology and sociology are used that require adaptation to this task.
Methods of psychology are, as a rule, methods of gathering information about mental phenomena at an individual or group level (observation method is a purposeful, organized and systematized examination of the object under study. The experimental method is a general scientific method of investigation, which consists in an active, mostly practical, pre-planned activity of the experimenter in the study of social and pedagogical phenomena in the process of their natural and artificial development The method of sociometry - is a method of research that allows you to diagnose and predict changes in the structure of the relationship of the individual in the team, which provides the possibility of a quantitative approach to the study of the phenomena of interpersonal communication. The method of group experiment - is an active way to identify the most effective conditions of life of a group of people, united by a framework of joint activities, but in reality not related to each other by certain relationships.)
Sociology methods are usually methods for gathering information about social phenomena at an individual or group level (poll method is a method of collecting primary (verbal) information based on a direct (interview) or mediated (questionnaire) interaction between the researcher and the respondent. The conversation method is a type of non-standardized interview, depending on the purpose of the study, the range of people involved, the time limit and technical capabilities. The interview method is a way of collecting and Information at the verbal level.
The method of questioning - is a type of correspondence survey, a written statement of questions that provide written answers about the objective or subjective facts of the respondent's vital activity. The method of analyzing performance - is a way of extracting information from documents, including acquaintance with a certain type of professional work. The method of peer review is a method of processing empirical data, which involves analyzing the necessary information about the specific features of the professions and the possible factors that negatively affect the subject of work, on the basis of interviewing a group of qualified professionals in the profession and studying documentation adequate to the task of the study ).
Special methods of social pedagogy are grouped into four groups: methods for studying the potential of the society (collection and processing of information); methods for resolving personality problems, groups (resolution and impact on the personality); methods realizing the potential of the society in activities and communication (resolution and impact on the person); methods of development, restoration of the potential of society (resolution and impact on the person, analysis and evaluation ).
First group. Methods of studying the pedagogical potential of a socium that is significant for resolving personality problems , allow you to explore the opportunities and resources of the society needed to solve specific problems of the individual. When implementing measures of influence on the personality, the specialist studies the very problem of the individual and the possibilities of the socium, which are significant for resolving it. In this regard, the specialist refers to the methods of study, in particular, he can use the methods of collecting information from the field of sociology, psychology, preliminarily adapting them to the content of the pedagogical potential of the society.
In this case, social tools are being developed to collect information on the potential of social activity, social relations, social institutions and the potential of the individual on the basis of socio-pedagogical methods. These are:
- methods for studying the potential of the individual are integrative ways of gathering information about the potential of the individual, in particular about the potential of his social needs, the potential of his social abilities, potential of his social values, and are designed primarily to determine the initial level of development of the individual's potential, as well as to monitor the development process and determine the final data of the phenomenon being studied. Here we are talking about methods of collecting information, usually at the beginning to measure the initial data and at the completion of the impact process for measuring the final data;- methods of studying the potential of social activity are ways to understand the resources and opportunities for activities that are significant for resolving the problems of socialization of a person or group and prisoners in its goals, methods, forms, subjects and objects and its final result; - methods of studying the potential of social relations are methods, methods of cognition of resources and opportunities of various types of social relations (interpersonal, production, intergroup, service, etc.) & gt; important for resolving the problems of socialization of the individual and prisoners in the social status, norms and rules of relations, social roles of the subjects of relations; - methods of studying the potential of social institutions are ways to understand the resources and opportunities of various social institutions that are significant for resolving the problems of socialization of the individual and prisoners in animate and inanimate carriers of potential.
The most important ways of gathering information to achieve the goals of social and pedagogical activity may be the knowledge-gathering tools known in psychology and sociology, as well as one's own method - the social and pedagogical map of the potential of society as a method of gathering information about significant resources, opportunities for social activities, social relations, social institutions and the individual to solve the problems of its socialization. This is a method of summarizing information about the significant aspects of the potential of the society, the forms and methods of using it to solve problems of socialization of the individual.
Second group. Methods for resolving the problems of the individual, the group in social and pedagogical activity ensure the systematic and appropriate use of the opportunities of the society in the interests of children and adults, the introduction of new activities and communication. Their application allows to take into account the needs of the children and adults themselves, to determine the material and human resources of the society in order to ensure a sufficiently high level of the activity to be introduced and to analyze the educational potential of a particular activity under specific conditions. These are:
- recommendation method is used to direct the activity of an impact object, manifests itself in the form of recommendations on how to act in the situation. Its essence consists in the statement by the subject of a proper position, the actions of the object in a particular situation;
- method of the council is used in case of difficult situations of the object of influence, which needs an analogue search. The essence of it is to state the subject's own position, actions in a similar situation. The difference from the recommendation method is that the council proceeds from the actions of the subject of the impact, rather than from the norms, requirements accepted in the society;- diagnostic method is to determine the capabilities, resources of both the society and the personality necessary to solve its problems; > - method of counseling is to provide information about the capabilities, resources of the society and the person, as well as the forms and methods of using them for resolving personality problems;
- method of support is to provide the facility with the impact of the resources, resources for resolving its problems in a temporarily difficult situation for it, ;
- support method is to provide the facility with the impact of the resources, resources to resolve its problems in a longer period, requiring the system to build capabilities self-realization;- correction method assumes the creation of conditions for the person to make a decision on the proper adequate change in behavior or actions in activity or communication;
- the method of inclusion in activities is to involve the object of influence to socially significant activity, to ensure the impact on it of all factors of this activity, to stimulate social motives of the individual and on this basis the development of adequate behavior and actions in complex social situations;
- the method of inclusion in social relations is the establishment of new social contacts for the individual, ensuring the impact of all factors of this relationship on her, stimulating her own experiences for the development of social needs;
- method of success consists in creating for the person special conditions for achieving a positive result of activity, communication with the goal of reinforcing positive motivation for repeated actions .
Third group. The methods of implementing the pedagogical potential of the society in activities and communication ensure the timely and balanced use of social resources and opportunities by the social institution that shape and stabilize business relations in all types of human activity . Realization of the potential of the society is carried out by establishing a more precise interaction of the functions of participants in joint activities, defining rights and obligations, and regulating business relations through the traditions and customs of the team or special documents. The application of the methods of this group makes it possible to take into account the complexity and different-level nature of the interaction, it is expedient and rational to apply the elements of the society, modern developing technologies (role, theatrical, business, organizational-activity, reflexive-innovative, etc.).
The most important methods of social and pedagogical activity can be:
- the method of realizing the activity potential , assumes the fulfillment by the individual of certain specific duties (activity functions) to achieve the objectives of the activity. Inclusion involves the activity of the individual until the end result of the activity. The range of this method is from beginning to end of activity;
- the method of realizing the potential of social relations is the establishment of social contacts by the individual with the aim of resolving the existing problems of socialization of the individual. It allows to realize the pedagogical potential of interaction of persons included in the process of communication. Impact on the person is carried out by means of a social role and the status which occupies the person in social relations of various type;
- mediation method is to establish a stable, active relationship between the client's problem and resources, the capabilities provided by the expert to the client to resolve his problem. Mediation achieves success when it accompanies the process of resolving a client's problem to its final result;
- partnership method (partnerships). Solving the client's problem requires the obligatory establishment of business, partnership and mutually beneficial relationships in order to gain access to the resources and opportunities of the society. The partnership presupposes the interaction (joint activity) of a specialist and a client (group) on equal rights and duties, aimed at achieving a common goal;
- the method of trusting interaction is the establishment of mutual social contacts, characterized by the special reliability of the actions of the parties and their effectiveness. The basis for trusting interaction is a convergent communication;- method of joint activities involves resolving the problems of the client by including it in joint activities with other persons, organizing the impact on the personality of the positive pedagogical factors of the joint activities; - the method of mutual information is to create an information loop between the expert and the client in order to timely provide meaningful information about the resources and opportunities of the society for resolution problems of the client;
- matching method means creating a stable system of interaction between a specialist and a client in order to achieve effectiveness of counter efforts in resolving personality problems through their reconciliation content, place and time;
- the method of empathy is to reach each other's understanding of the expert and client, the ability to enter into the position of the other and perform actions that are adequate to the intent of the other;- Tolerance method is the development of skills and abilities of patience, restraint in relation to undesirable ideas, beliefs and actions of another, to different invariant manifestations in the society; - the method of mutual assistance assumes the development of the client's skills and accepting help from others and providing assistance to another in the situation of its necessity and expediency; is the creation of social contacts that promote the development of skills and skills of positive perception, timely interchange of relevant information and interactivity in activity and communication.
Fourth group. The methods of development (recovery ) the pedagogical potential of the society by means of social and pedagogical activity , social environment ensure the expedient development of new and restoration of existing traditional and innovative opportunities and resources of the society, impacts on the individual, the activities of the social institution. They are a set of measures for the pedagogy of the social environment, the creation of conditions for the pedagogical consistency of social institutions, social activity and social relations in relation to educational influences on the individual or group. They allow you to combine the established collective resources, views, development prospects and innovations, conditioned by the social order for the activity of this institution. The application of these methods allows timely to take into account the general trends in the development of the social environment and the problems of socialization of the individual in it. These are:
- the method of creating innovative technologies , assuming the development and participation in the activities of specialists from various social institutions of techniques, methods, techniques and techniques that provide more high level of representation of the potential of the society for resolving personality problems;
- the method of activization of socially significant cases is a way of providing various types of socially significant activity as a pedagogical potential of the society through their presentation and providing available forms of their implementation;
- the method of stimulating interpersonal interaction is the development of skills and skills for specialists in identifying significant resources of interpersonal relations and showing positive results of the joint activity of a specialist and client;- the method of social adaptation is the development of the skills and abilities of the specialist to create conditions for the comprehensive adaptation of the client to a new social environment, new social relations and joint activities. An important indicator of social adaptation is the willingness of a specialist to create new social connections and interactions;
- the method of social rehabilitation assumes that the specialist has the ability to restore the client's normal social ties and relationships lost by the impact of disadaptive factors in the process social activity or communication, and the acquisition of demented personality by the individual;
- project method is to develop a specialist's skills and abilities to build and present the prospect of resolving client problems through the implementation of specific resources and opportunities of the society with using verbal and non-verbal means of reflecting its content;
- modeling method is the development of the skills and skills of the specialist in constructing theoretical models, schemes and programs for implementing the pedagogical potential of the society in solving specific problems personality;are the development of knowledge, skills, relations and with the help of social institutions, as well as the development of the client's own potential - social needs and social abilities of the individual;
- the method of step-by-step development of the environment is to create a system of stages of systematic, purposeful comprehensive restoration (development) of the potential of the society, ensuring the effectiveness of all its elements in resolving the problems of the individual or group.
Thus, as the data indicate, the socio-pedagogical toolkit is used, as a rule, in unity with other methods of orienting on those features of people's consciousness that are formed under the influence of the daily conditions of their life and activity, as well as their own life experience.
In the socio-pedagogical practice, methods of collecting information are actively used, especially at the initial stages of cognition of the personality and its social and pedagogical problem.
This is a brief description of the methods most important for social pedagogy. It should be noted that none of the methods considered, taken by itself, can claim to be universal, to fully guarantee the objectivity of the information received about the individual and society. Therefore, each specialist (a researcher of social and pedagogical problems) seeks, on the one hand, to improve the technique of applying any particular method, and on the other hand, to a complex, mutually controlling use of different methods for studying the same problem, obtaining substantial theoretical and practical results. The above methods of social pedagogy form the basis for the implementation of the socio-pedagogical approach as a system of scientific understanding and expression of the problem under investigation in practice.
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