Methods of using the game to correct deficiencies in the personal...

Methods of using the game in correcting the shortcomings of the personal development of junior schoolchildren

The process of pedagogical correction of the shortcomings of personal development of junior schoolchildren will be successful if the teacher is able to create such conditions in which a systematic and systematic appeal to gaming technologies does not violate the natural logic of the school life of children.

The model of pedagogical design of the corrective-developing process assumes the embedding of the system of game tasks in the general architectonics of the educational process with the purpose of pedagogically expedient filling of unjustifiably empty temporary niches in the school life of the child: free minutes to lessons, after lessons, during changes, walks. In addition, some gaming tasks are organically integrated into the lesson, strengthening the corrective-developing orientation of physical training, dynamic pauses, minutes of silence, etc. Conducting games does not require additional and strictly fixed in the mode of the school day.

As a result of the game instrumentation of the correctional-developing process, it is possible to perform front-line, individual, group work and work in pairs.

For frontal organizations are most suitable for physical education - breaks during lessons. Their purpose, according to sanitary and hygienic standards, is to allow children to relax, to lose the accumulated fatigue, tension, without going beyond the general logic of the educational process, without destroying the mood for academic work. In these conditions, psycho-technical games, combined into special pairs, are most acceptable. The first game in each pair is liberating or relaxing (for example, the "Zoo"), and the second one is mobilizing (eg, "Canon").

In the game "Zoo children stand near the desks (if conditions permit, occupy another class space) and imagine themselves to be zoo animals. At the command of the teacher, they use mimicry, pantomime, gestures, intonations to represent an animal. Commands can be repeated at different time intervals. Among the animals depicted may be, for example:

Bunnies - children jumping around in class;

The horses - high lifting the knee bent in the knee, hit it

about sex;

crayfish - backs away;

birds - running around the classroom, arms outstretched;

Stork - stand on one leg, pinching the other up as high as possible;

The frog - jump squatting;

chickens - walk around the class, lifting their knees bent at the knees.

Game Zoo has a relaxing effect on all younger schoolchildren. Children with aggressive, impulsive and demonstrative behavior get the opportunity to manifest themselves in active and diverse activities, to realize in the reasonably prescribed limits the accumulated energy. Shy children, if they do not immediately take part in the game, are still not only passive contemplatives. They experience the same positive emotions as the players. Gradually, becoming infected with a general mood and overcoming their shyness, they are actively involved in the game.

The game Canon unlike the previous one, not so much liberating as mobilizing. Schoolchildren stand in a column one by one and alternately raise first the left hand, then the right hand, then both hands. It is desirable that the game was held in silence. If this condition is met, more attention and concentration is required from each child. It's important not to gape and just at the right moment make the appropriate movement with your hand. The canon is broken if someone makes a movement with a hand at the same time as the previous player, or is ahead of him, or, conversely, is late. Children, because of which failures in the canon most often occur, it is advisable to put them at the beginning of the column. In the future, the chain of movements can be supplemented and complicated. For example, the left hand is taken to the side, then the right hand, then both hands to the side, the left hand to the head, etc.

Frontal work on correcting the shortcomings of personal development of junior schoolchildren can be conducted directly during the lessons. In this case, games are modeled on the basis of the training material.

For example, in the lesson of reading in the second class, it can become the story of Y. Yermolayev Negotiated & quot ;. Children read this story and together with the teacher analyze its content. It is important that they recognize and note the negative traits of the personality of the main heroine, Irochka - arrogance, capriciousness, selfishness, touchiness, i.e. exactly what is so characteristic of children with demonstrative and protest behavior. You should also pay attention to the children and the results, which lead to such behavior of the girl.

After reading the story on the roles, its staging is organized. Children are encouraged to invent and play a sequel that would show how over time, for example, a month later, Irochka's behavior changed, what positive personality traits she acquired (modesty, responsiveness, benevolence).

Since the main character of the story is a girl, she acts as a model of behavior primarily for girls. For greater effectiveness of this work with boys, one can choose the story of VL Durov, "Our Beetle," which shows how the child's anger and aggression after repentance give way to a good attitude toward animals.

In the lessons on the subject The World around The following games are possible using the training material.

Play Traffic Light serves as an illustration to the topic About the rules of road behavior and at the same time a game training of such qualities as self-control, concentration, self-control - derivatives of the effective-volitional component of self-awareness.

To participate in this game, children are divided into two teams with an equal number of participants and are lined up in a semicircle, one on the left, the other on the right of the teacher. In the hands of the teacher, a traffic light - two cardboard mugs, one side of which is yellow, the other can be different - either red or green. The teacher reminds junior schoolchildren how important it is to follow the rules of traffic on the street, it is necessary to cross it only in designated places where there is an inscription "pass"; first you should look to the left, then to the right to make sure that there are no cars close; in those places where the traffic light is installed, it is necessary to closely monitor it. The teacher reads S. Mikhalkov's poems, giving the children the opportunity to insert necessary words during short pauses:

If the light turns red, it means moving ... {dangerous}.

Light green says:

Go, the path ... {open) *.

Yellow light - warned -

Wait for the signal for ... (traffic).

The rules of the game are as follows: when the teacher shows a green traffic light signal, the children march on the spot when the yellow clap their hands and when the red stand still. Anyone who mixes up the signal, takes a step backward (out of the game). Signals change unexpectedly, at different intervals. The team wins, which will have more players left by the end of the game.

In the third grade at the lessons on the subject "The World around" children get acquainted with the rules of conduct ( good rules ). Among the tasks on the topic there is this: "Play with the scenes" On the bus, "" At dinner, "" In the school locker room, "" In the queue, "etc., using the rules of good-sounding" . The right to choose a story is given to children, but the teacher can strengthen not only the educational and upbringing, but also the corrective-developing potential of each act played with his correct interference. For example, the situation in the bus it is advisable to build it so that a timid, shy child was forced to show activity: to ask someone to validate the ticket or to clarify whether the standing "passengers" are coming in front of them, and the child with protest behavior is to concede unconditionally to the "old lady".

When you schedule their children's activities with the children in the scene "Queue in the library", the teacher quietly and unobtrusively turns the plot so that impulsive and undisciplined junior schoolchildren are at the very end of the line and, moreover, are forced to constantly politely and calmly skip the queue timid children with conformal behavior, playing the role of teachers who are in a hurry: who is at the pedagogical council, who is at the parents' meeting, and are asked to let them turn in the books without waiting in line.

In the lesson of physical education, the "Captions" game is appropriate, in which all participants will need courage, self-control, initiative, and also the ability to adequately experience their defeat. The players form a circle and become two steps from each other facing the center. Each 5th or 7th player (at the discretion of the teacher and depending on the number of players) takes hands with his neighbor on the right. They raise their hands upward, forming a collar-trap, and turn so that the collar is over the circle line. At the command of the teacher, the players turn to the right and start running around in a circle. At the same time, they must run through all the traps caught in the path. On the whistle (or other conditional signal) the traps slam (pairs holding hands, lowering them down) and the players caught caught (trapped in traps) exit to the middle. From them new pairs are formed, which, holding hands, also become in different places of the circle, increasing the number of traps. The game continues as long as only three or four players remain uncaught. They are considered winners.

Frontal work can be successfully continued on a walk, where, for example, the collective folk game "Boyar" is appropriate.

The players form two ranks, which face each other at a distance of 20-30 steps. Inside each line, the children hold their hands tightly, so that when they move towards each other the ranks are not opened. In the first rank - the boyars, wishing to choose a bride from the second rank, the boyars of which in every possible way interfere with this choice. As a result, a dialogical game action unfolds between them.

Boyars of the 1st rank ( take 6 steps towards the 2nd line, which remains in place). Boyars, and we have come to you.

Young, and we have come to you ( take 6 steps back).

Boyars of the 2nd rank, ( do 6 steps towards the 1st rank, which in turn remains in place). Boyars, but why did you come?

Children of the 2nd line say the text ( do 6 steps back). Young, but why did you come?

With the continuation of the subsequent text, the lines alternately continue these movements.

Boyar 1. Boyars, we need a bride.

Young, we need a bride.

Boyar 2. Boyars, and which one is nice to you?

Young, and which one is nice to you?

Boyar 1. Boyars, we are here this nice.

Young, we have this sweet (show who they choose).

Boyar 2. Boyars, she's a fool with us.

Young, she's a fool with us.

Boyar 1. Boyars, we give her a gingerbread.

Young, we give her a gingerbread.

Boyar 2. Boyars, her teeth hurt.

Young, her teeth hurt.

Boyar 1. Boyars, we'll reduce it to a doctor.

Young, we'll reduce it to a doctor.

Boyar 2. Boyars, she is afraid of doctors.

Young, she is afraid of doctors.

Boyar 1. Boyar, and we are her pate.

Young, and we plaid her.

Boyar 2. Boyare, she's afraid of scoops.

Young, she is afraid of scabs.

Boyar 1. Boyars, do not fool around.

Give us the bride forever!

After these words, both ranks stop moving. Boyars are the first to hold their hands tight. Selected bride runs out and

tries to break their "chain". If she succeeds, she goes back to her boyars, if not, then becomes in the opposite line.

This game has a corrective effect simultaneously on all participating children. Shy and shy schoolchildren, surrounded by active and temperamental peers, begin to move with them, say the text, have fun. Impulsive and undisciplined children, observing the existing order in the game, reinforce the experience of subordination to the rules, exercise their abilities in deterrence and self-control. The abundance of structured physical contact with peers is extremely beneficial (calming) affects children with aggressive inclinations.

The main purpose of the pair and individual forms of correctional work is to direct and maximize the focus of the correction-developmental impact on the reserve capabilities and specific shortcomings of the personal development of specific children. With the help of these forms of work it is not difficult to create conditions for targeted corrective impact on the child's negative personality traits, non-constructive ways of behavior, to fill the deficit in the development of self-awareness components. In addition, individual games and games in pairs that precede the participation of some younger students with aggressive or conformal behavior in a collective game are a good way to prevent possible failures of such children.

Depending on the remedial tasks being solved, the composition of the participants in paired and group games can be homogeneous, i.e. to unite children with similar deficiencies in behavior, with identical negative personality traits having the same level of development of self-awareness. At the same time, it is possible, and often useful, to participate in paired and group games of children with very different problems of personal development.

To work with the group, the most acceptable time before and after the lessons, in the afternoon. For example, in parallel with the employment of a speech therapist or another specialist, you can play a game corrective work with children who do not attend these classes.

By designing the process of correcting the shortcomings of the personal development of junior schoolchildren, it is advisable for the teacher to orientate in each target block for the following methodological tasks:

Block 1. Self-awareness of junior high school students:

- fix the child's attention on his own gaming experiences;

- make it normal for a child to notice the positive and negative personality traits inherent in him and manifested by him (on the eve or today, in a particular game);

- regularly invite him to assess his real and potential opportunities in the performance of a particular role;

- teach to control their behavior, manage their emotions at the stage of organizing the game and when summarizing, discussing the results;

- to draw the attention of the child to the extent to which his behavior corresponds to the nature of the playing role throughout the game.

Block 2. The personality traits of junior high school students:

- fix the attention of the child on the negative and positive features of the personality, which are inherent in both game characters and children playing the roles of these characters (including the child himself);

- involve him in creating a verbal psychological portrait of a game character or other participants in the game;

- Learn to predict (anticipate) the possible consequences of the unconstructive behavior of any game character with negative personality traits.

Block 3 . Behavior of younger students:

- include the child in the display-playing of typical situations with actual psychological difficulties for him;

- fix his attention on typical forms of constructive behavior;

- teach you how to use some acceptable behavioral patterns and constructive ways of resolving conflicts;

- develop a child's ability to independently choose adequate emotional responses and actions in unforeseen situations.

Using the game to correct the shortcomings of the personal development of junior schoolchildren, the teacher must observe the certain logical sequence , which will effectively organize the correction-development process.

1. Preliminary diagnosis and analysis of the child's diagnostic map, on the basis of which the gaps and strengths of the child's personal development are revealed.

2. The formulation of tasks (the construction of the "ladder of problems") and the thinking of the logic of the corrective-developing work with each child: whether it is a correction of the scarce components of self-awareness, or the transformation of behavior, or the coping of negative ones and the development of positive personality traits.

3. The choice of an adequate form of corrective-developing influence: individual lessons with the child, including it in group, pair or frontal work, the use of an appropriate combination of several forms.

4. The construction of a game program (the system of games), its content filling with game exercises and games of various types (story-role, mobile, folk, etc.), focused on the solution of the indicated corrective-developing tasks. In the content of the program, it is necessary to provide for the participation of each child in several games made up of increasing complexity, since participation in one or two, even three games is not enough to achieve the desired effect, and the presence of active roles for all participants of the game, since the position of "only fans" ;, viewers little satisfies younger schoolchildren. It should also be taken into account that not only well-known, already proven games, but also real situations, children's favorite books and cartoons, as well as materials from the curriculum can become a source of content for games and game exercises.

5. The introduction of corrections, additions, changes, amendments in the correctional and developing game program in general and in its separate blocks, caused by the following reasons:

- the need to adapt some game tasks to the capabilities of the child, the replacement of some game tasks by others (easier or more difficult) to prevent emotional satiety and game fatigue;

- the desire to complicate the game requirements, for example, by concise imagery and role-playing game alone to long plot-role-playing games or directing with a variety of characters; from the game with detailed instructions to creative, independent games, etc .;

- Compaction or negative intensity of the corrective-developing influence.

6. The choice of methods and techniques of corrective-developmental impact, adequate to the child's capabilities and appropriate to the specifics of the game content. For example, such as interrupting the game at the most interesting place, ignoring the child's behavior; permission on a certain type of behavior, etc. Along with this, thinking through the methodical arrangement of the corrective-developing process, it is advisable:

- to introduce fines, restrictions and incentives into the game activity of junior schoolchildren, which is an effective means of developing discipline, concentration, responsibility;

- regularly break up couples, groups, teams of children playing, mix them as often as possible to prevent the painful attachment of some children to their peers;

- during the school day, usually after the lessons, provide children with the opportunity for independent free games. The emergence of such a free game, when one of the children wants to still be a favorite character, to play a role again, to continue the game experience or to extend the previously used game story - all this serves as an indicator of the success of the correctional and developing work.

The success of the work on correcting the shortcomings of the personal development of junior schoolchildren using the game depends largely on how skillfully the teacher organizes and manages the game process. Failure in the game correction-development process, or even its complete destruction can occur in cases where the teacher:

provides the participants of the game with excessive unreasonable freedom, confining themselves to the position of the observer. If junior schoolchildren, for various reasons, are not able to cope with the freedom granted to them, then the relationship between the participants in the game becomes uncontrollable and conflicts within the gaming roles grow into personal dislike;

too often and rigidly interferes in the course of the game. In this case, instead of initiating the processes of self-organization in the children's gaming community, it suppresses them by imposing or offering game participants in the finished form certain relationships, actions, solutions to problems.

The optimal management style of the corrective-developing gameplay is characterized by adequacy, flexibility and predictability.

By adequacy, we mean the ability of the teacher to see and deeply understand the individual characteristics of each student, to notice in a timely manner the changes that occur in the development of his personality and behavior.

Flexibility affects the ability to timely and, as necessary, make adjustments to the content and methodological tools of the game process in accordance with the changes that it observes in the properties and behavior of younger students.

The predictability is expressed in anticipation of the results of the corrective-developing process and the organization of conditions in which the appearance of new socially desirable qualities of personality and constructive ways of behavior of younger schoolchildren will be anticipated.

Questions and tasks

1. What is the difference between the tasks of personal development in traditional and innovative pedagogical practice?

2. Analyze the priority tasks and approaches to solving the problem of the child's personal development in various pedagogical systems:

- the system of developmental training of L.V. Zankov (Education and development, edited by L.V. Zankov, M., 1975);

- the system of developmental training VV Davydov (The theory of developmental learning .- M., 1996);

- the school LI. Milgram (Unity and Diversity // Family and School.

- 1996.-№ 1. S. 2-4.

- A.Tubelsky's school (Forming experience of democratic behavior of schoolchildren and teachers, M., 2001);

- the school EA Yamburg (School on the road to freedom: Cultural and historical pedagogy., Moscow, 2000).

3. What are the features of development in the younger school age of self-awareness in general and its individual components?

4. Observe and describe the typical ways of influencing the various components of self-awareness, resorted to by adults (teachers, parents) in everyday communication with younger schoolchildren. To observe and analyze the results, use the following scheme:

5. Describe in writing any two pairs of personality traits.

6. Select a piece from the Childhood Themes NGGarina-Mikhailovskogo and The lonely sail becomes white * VPKataeva. What personality traits are inherent in the child described in this passage. Please format your answer in the form of a table:


Characteristic personality traits




7. What personality traits are inherent in younger schoolchildren with this or that type of unconstructive behavior?

8. What violations and in what components of self-consciousness lead to this or that type of unconstructive behavior?

9. From the works of classical fiction select fragments that illustrate the different types of unconstructive behavior of children.

10. What are the possible differences in the use of the game by teachers and psychologists in correctional and developing work with children?

And. Analyze the following work: Anikeeva NP. Educating the game. - Novosibirsk, 1994; Bardier G. Psychological support of the natural development of young children. - St. Petersburg, 1996; Weiner ME Children. Emotions. School. - Obninsk, 2001; Voropaeva I. P. Correction of the emotional sphere of junior schoolchildren. - M., 1993; Kalinina R. The development of the personality of the preschooler. St. Petersburg, 2001; Chistyakova M.I. Psychogymastics. - M., 1990.

For what purpose and for what tasks does the game use each of the above authors?

12. What tasks are being done to diagnose the shortcomings in the personal development of younger schoolchildren?

13. Develop a scenario of a projective game that identifies individual and typological characteristics of the personality and behavior of younger schoolchildren.

14. In accordance with the instruction, conduct a diagnosis of behavioral and personal characteristics of three or four junior schoolchildren. Record the results in the student's personal maps. Formulate and record the difficulties you encountered in conducting the diagnosis and processing the results.

15. What universal knowledge and skills are necessary for a primary school teacher to make the most effective use of gaming technology in working with younger schoolchildren?

16. Compare the game technologies of A.Spivakovskaya (Psychotherapy: Play, Childhood, Family: In 2 volumes - M., 2000. - T. 1. - P. 268 - 299) and A. A. Romanov (Directional gameplay of aggressiveness in children - M., 2001). What type of game therapy can be attributed to each of them? Argument your conclusions. Make the results of the analysis in the form of a table:

AS Spivakovskaya's game technology

Analysis Options

AA Romanov's game technology





conditions (principles)

differences in these technologies

common between them

17. What structural elements of the game are more oriented toward the development of the cognitive component of the self-awareness of younger schoolchildren? What are the most effective of them for developing the emotional-value component of a child's self-awareness? What are the appropriate uses for the development of the volitional component of self-awareness?

18. Design or choose to work with junior schoolchildren with inadequate self-esteem, three or four game stories, with characters that are positive personal changes.

19. Design an didactic game designed for younger students with protest behavior. Invent and show possible ways of making it more complicated.

20. From any collection of United States folk games, choose that game that, by its corrective-developing properties, will be universal for children with various personality development deficiencies and any type of unconstructive behavior. Justify your choice.

21. Design a game system for corrective-developing work with two younger schoolchildren whose diagnostic tests you have already conducted.

22. Uncover the benefits of each form of corrective-developing work - frontal, group, pair, individual.

23. Based on the educational material, design two or three games, focused on correcting the shortcomings of personal development of junior schoolchildren.

24. Create and describe a model of teaching and educational process (on the example of one school day or academic week) with the correction-developing game technologies built into its structure.

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