Models of organization after-hour activities in school
In practice, several multi-dimensional models for the organization of after-hour activities are developed and used:
• additional education based on the institutional system;
• Additional education based on the municipal system;
• Full-day school model & quot ;;
• model "school league";
• Cadet Corps;
• a diversified school of in-depth education;
• parent-pedagogical year-round association;
• individual creative and project learning;
• School supplemented by club associations by interests, etc.
Consider the three main models most relevant to the primary education system.
The first model - the model of additional education - relies on the primary use of the potential of in-school supplementary education and on cooperation with institutions of additional education for children. Extracurricular activities are closely associated with the additional education of children in creating conditions for the development of the creative interests of children and their inclusion in artistic, technical, environmental, biological, sports and other activities.
The connecting link between extracurricular activities and additional education of children are such forms of its implementation as electives, school scientific societies, associations of interests, subject matter of choice.
The implementation of extracurricular activities based on the model of additional education is directly provided for in the GEF DOE, which states that the educational institution, within the framework of the relevant state (municipal) assignments formed by the founder, can use the opportunities of additional education institutions for children, cultural and sports organizations.
This model assumes the creation of a common program-methodical space for extracurricular activities and additional education for children, the transition from the management of educational institutions to the management of educational programs. At the same time, the dominant link is the basic educational program of the school, which must be "adjusted" programs of school supplementary education or programs of institutions of additional education, with which the school cooperates.
If the school realizes this model, it is necessary to provide for the readiness for territorial, social and academic mobility of children. In other words, it may be necessary to move children from school to additional education institutions, they will have to "pour in" in other children's groups, it is possible to change the requirements for methods of teaching and upbringing.
The advantages of the model are to provide a wide choice for the child on the basis of the spectrum of the directions of children's interest associations, the possibility of free self-determination and self-realization of the child, the involvement in the implementation of after-hours activities of qualified professionals, as well as the practice-oriented and activity-based educational process, inherent in the additional education of children.
The second model is the model of a full-time school . In this model, after-hour activities are realized mainly by educators of extended-day groups.
Features of this model are:
• Creating conditions for the full stay of the child in an educational institution during the day. In such a school, a special educational environment of the school should be created with the allocation of spaces for recreation, games, creativity, self-training, etc.
• a meaningful unity of the educational, educational, developmental processes within the educational system and the basic educational program of the educational institution;
• creation of a health-saving environment that ensures compliance with sanitary and epidemiological rules and regulations and includes the rational organization of the educational process, the optimization of physical activity, the organization of rational nutrition, the work on the formation of the value of health and a healthy lifestyle;
• creation of conditions for self-expression, self-realization and self-organization of children, with active support of children's public associations and bodies of student self-government;
• construction of an individual educational trajectory and an individual schedule of the child's stay in an educational institution;
• reliance on the integration of basic and additional educational programs.
The full-day school education process involves two interrelated blocks:
• core: the interaction of lessons and self-training, consultations on subjects and electives;
• after-school: excursions, subject Olympiads, subject circles, scientific societies, lectures, development courses, creative circles, studios and clubs.
Blocks should be closely related. The combination of the presented components of the teaching and educational process ensures the development of intellectual, creative activity of each child. Therefore, the main task of managing a full-time school is to ensure the appropriate interrelation of the main blocks of the educational process of such a school.
The established practice of functioning full-time schools involves providing each class group with 36 hours a week, of which 26 hours are a group of extended days, and 10 hours are developing extracurricular activities.
On the basis of the distribution of academic and after-hour time, a weekly schedule of the day for each class group is compiled, with the schedules of the 1st and 2nd half of the day correlated and form a single full-day school schedule, namely:
• The lessons of the 1st half of the day alternate with breakfasts according to the buffet regime;
• After 4-5th lesson - lunch, walk, rest;
• Less than 1.5-2 hours after the end of the lessons, self-study lessons begin (1-2 lessons of 30 minutes with a break of 10 minutes); consultations with subject teachers; classes with a psychologist, etc.;
• After self-preparation and consultations - free time: classes in groups, sections, lessons on the after-hour program.
The third model is optimization . The model of after-hour activity based on the optimization of all the internal resources of the educational institution assumes that all the teachers of the institution (teachers, teacher-organizer, social pedagogue, teacher-psychologist, teacher-defectologist, teacher-speech therapist, educator, senior counselor , tutor, etc.).
In this case, the coordinating role is usually performed by the class teacher who, in accordance with his functions and tasks:
• interacts with pedagogical workers, as well as with educational and support staff of a general educational institution;
• organizes in the classroom an educational process that is optimal for the development of the positive potential of the individual trainees within the framework of the school's general staff;
• organizes a system of relations through various forms of the upbringing activity of the class collective, including through self-government bodies;
• organizes socially significant, creative activity of students.
The advantages of the optimization model are the minimization of financial costs for after-hour activities, the creation of a single educational and methodical space in an educational institution, the meaningful and organizational unity of all its structural units. The implementation of individual curricula is supported by tutors of the educational institution.
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