Modern concepts of artistic and aesthetic development
The concept of D. B. Kabalevsky (1904-1987) was created in the middle of XX century. DB Kabalevsky argued that the influence of art on morality can not be replaced by anything. It affects children long before they enter school. The first meetings with art - with the first fairy tales, songs and pictures, with the first puppet shows and animated films - put before the children the most important moral and aesthetic problems, teach them to understand what is good and evil, love for friends and hatred of enemies, that such nobility and that such meanness. In the center of music there is always a person with his thoughts, feelings, deeds.
The music lessons of D. B. Kabalevsky set the task of educating students in the music culture as part of their entire spiritual culture. The didactic system of DB Kabalevsky was built on three pillars: a song, a dance, a march. Song, dance and march are the three main spheres of music, they make it possible to combine great musical art with musical studies at school, while ensuring the closest connection of these activities with life.
Already from the first lessons of music first-graders learn not only to observe and sensually perceive a particular phenomenon, but also to think about it. In the system of D. B. Kabalevsky, lectures were provided. The teacher reflected with the children on the topics: "Where do the whales lead us?", "History imprinted itself in art" and others
D. B. Kabalevsky believed that the present, sensual and thoughtful perception of music is the basis of all forms of familiarizing with music, because at the same time the inner spiritual world of students, their feelings and thoughts are activated.
B. M. Nemensky - a famous artist. His work in the field of art, he began as a military artist: reflected in his works the feat of the Soviet people on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War. The task of art BM Nemensky sees in the development of the ability to understand, empathize, sympathize, in the upbringing of genuine humanism.
Art at all times and ages is the source of spiritual food. Therefore, the system of aesthetic education can bear fruit only on condition that the connections between art and life are realized. The program of Nemensky is built on the phased mastering of social experience of art. The most important difference of the new program is a holistic block-thematic construction of common circles of knowledge in each year and quarter with a variety of practical activities. The entire course of study is a unified system of consistently developing, interrelated themes that reveal the basis for the connections of fine, decorative and constructive arts with the life of man and society.
The triad of the foundations of artistic thinking acts as three forms of artistic activity known to children almost before the school: design, image, decor. Each child in the process of their games necessarily build something. Every child draws something, depicts something. And, finally, every child decorates himself, his toys, and his corner. All these three elements of artistic activity help in becoming familiar with art precisely as a form of life activity.
Aesthetic education, according to Yemen, is based on the art of seeing (seeing art in the surrounding life, seeing the richness and diversity of beauty); art to understand (pictured, decorated and built); the art of depicting the visible.
The concept of BM Nemensky is based on the search for internal links between plastic arts and the life of society. It connects three forms of plastic artistic activity: construction, image, decoration - with the development of three spheres of artistic thinking: constructive, graphic, decorative. These forms of artistic thinking accompany the spiritual life of society, help him form and establish in everyday life a moral and aesthetic ideal.
Each people, each era has its own artistic and aesthetic symbols. So, the white color of some people is adopted for the bride's attire, in others - for mourning. The revolutionary era in all nations is painted in red. Each generation of children should not only master the artistic and aesthetic ideals of the age, but also shape their perception of life.
B. M. Nemensky believes that the inner world of the child is closer to the unity of thought and feeling than pure thought. Therefore, along with the transfer of scientific information, which is guided by modern didactics, we must provide for a way of mastering the content of learning subjects through experience. These possibilities are opened by art. He believes that any system of cognition must be built on the foundation of emotional living in art. The artist argues that in school, the system of both educational and extracurricular work must organically include constructive, graphic, decorative activity.
Modern Practice of Forming Artistic and Aesthetic Competencies
In the modern United States system of aesthetic education there are three main directions.
The first direction - the basic education: from kindergartens to higher educational institutions. Aesthetic education pupils receive on subjects of an aesthetic cycle (the fine arts, music, United States, literature, etc.). These subjects are initially focused on the formation of ideas about the beauty of the word, form, sound. The aesthetic potential contains all academic subjects. So, the desire for beauty of the body, movements is formed through physical education lessons; understanding of the accuracy, expediency of the solution - through the lessons of mathematics; exalted feelings, experiences a person, joining the great past in the lessons of history.
The second direction is an additional education, carried out on the basis of children's art schools and creative houses, sports sections, circles of scientific, technical and artistic orientation.
In accordance with the US Law "On Education out-of-school institutions began to be called institutions of additional education for children. In the practice of additional education, forms such as children's clubs, children's parks, museums, health camps, and art schools have evolved. Currently, there is an active conversion of all forms to children's centers.
The third direction is represented by diverse institutions that make up the cultural environment, the spiritual habitat of modern man: the Internet, television, libraries, museums, theaters, cinemas, clubs.
For the development of artistic and aesthetic competencies, it is important not only "aesthetics" content, but also the creation of a cultural and educational environment that provides a person-oriented learning and development of artistic and aesthetic education. It is brought up first of all by the situation itself, the world that surrounds the person.
The supertask, to which the aesthetic education is directed, is to educate the human in man. The beauty of a person is, above all, spiritual beauty. Therefore, good deeds make a person beautiful. Anyone who destroys nature, himself, does evil to another person, becomes ugly.
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