Modern organizational forms of education for young children
At present, there are various forms of education for young children. These are state pre-school educational institutions, which include groups for young children, educational institutions in which only groups for toddlers are active. There are also similar private educational institutions.
In some of them there are groups of round-the-clock stay of children (five days) and short-term (part-time groups). The first ones are visited by children whose parents have a changeable schedule and can not take the child home every day, the second - children who spend most of their time in the family under the supervision of parents, other relatives or nannies. In these groups, the kids come to classes and walks.
In the system of preschool education there are also institutions of additional education for young children (centers of creativity and development, clubs, etc.). They are engaged in children several times a week.
For children orphans and children deprived of parental care, from birth to 3 years, the children's homes are organized, which are located in the Ministry of Health.
In recent years, new models of education for young children, focused on the interests and needs of the family, are becoming increasingly widespread. They are variants of short-term stay of children in a pre-school institution and make special demands on the cooperation of educators, teachers, medical personnel who must constantly coordinate their actions so that children can receive a full education for a short period of time in the group. There are different models of groups of short-term stay of children.
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Groups of short stay of children in a specially equipped room assume a free regime of stay in them of children. Parents bring the child at a convenient time for them for 2-3 hours during the working day. Here, educational and educational work with children is carried out individually.
A variant of this model is the organization of two- or three-shift work groups. In this case, children come to kindergarten for a certain time for a short period, for example, from 8.00 to 11.00, from 11.00 to 14.00, from 15.00 to 18.00. With this option, work is carried out with a subgroup of children. In addition to teachers, the pedagogical process may involve a musical director, a teacher of physical education, a specialist in visual activity, etc.
Short stay of children in a fixed kindergarten group. This model does not require a specially allocated room and assigned to a group of educators. Children are assigned to permanent groups corresponding to the age of each child. Kids are included in the life of the group for the period of time that parents leave it in the preschool.
Weekend groups. This group can include children who do not attend preschool, as well as those kids who go to nursery groups all the time.
Adaptation groups of children's short stay Adaptation of children to preschool is held in a specially equipped room. This model involves working with children of those educators who will subsequently take them to their group for permanent residence. The educator deals with such a group on that shift, when another educator works in his constantly working group. The next day the teachers change.
Family groups of children's short stay Groups of this type are organized in specially equipped (so-called family ) rooms. They have comfortable furniture for adults and for children, a library with popular scientific literature for parents, with didactic materials and toys for joint games of children with a teacher, parents, peers, and also with older brothers and sisters. The task of such groups is the creation of a special microclimate that facilitates the adaptation of the child to the conditions of a pre-school institution, the realization of a personality-oriented model of upbringing.
Groups of short-term stay of children to service their specialists and medical staff of preschool do not require a separate room and specialists. They are serviced by specialists working in this institution. In the framework of this model, parents can choose the type of classes or procedures that they consider appropriate for their baby. For example, it can only lead to musical or physical education, or physiotherapy, or massage. The regime of a child's visit to a pre-school institution is regulated by parents together with educators and specialists.
The organization of home care services for children with disabilities, combined with their short stay in a preschool institution assumes an individual mode of work with each child and an individual program for its development and the procedures that are conducted with him at home and in the kindergarten). Part of the classes are conducted with the child at home, and some in the pre-school institution at the time when this type of exercise is conducted with the appropriate age group. Thus, the educator acts as a "social educator", alternately serving several children at home and in a group.
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The basic concepts of pedagogy are the object and subject of pedagogy, education, upbringing, education, the content of education, educational programs, the pedagogical process.The main goals of education at an early age are the protection and strengthening of children's health, the formation of a basis for personal culture, development of individual abilities and inclinations of each child.
Personally oriented pedagogy presupposes adherence to the principles of the self-worth of age, the unity of education and training, individualization and the variability of education.
The main objectives of the education of children at an early age are: ensuring their emotional well-being; adherence to the values of a healthy lifestyle; creation of conditions for the development of communicative, cognitive, playful and other types of activity of the child; support of initiative and creative self-expression of each.
The content of early childhood education is differentiated into four spheres in which the child develops: physical, cognitive-speech, socially-personal, artistic-aesthetic development.
Pedagogical methods are divided into research methods and methods of education and training. Research: observation, pedagogical experiment, conversation, questioning, studying documentation, analysis of the process and results of children's activities. Methods of teaching and education: verbal, visual, practical, methods of direct and indirect impact, problem education and training.
There are various forms of education for young children: nursery groups in pre-school educational institutions, institutions specifically designed for young children, institutions of additional education. Various models of short-term stay of children in a children's educational institution were widely disseminated.
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