Modern theories of development of children's communities as forms of functioning of pedagogical systems
Children's groups and their development
Children's group is not only a medium, but also a means of raising a child. One of the first in pedagogy was AS Makarenko, who developed the theory of the children's collective. Subsequently, several theories were created in pedagogy.
L. I. Umansky developed a typology of children's groups based on the level and direction of their influence on the personality of a member of the group. The scientist identified the following types of groups:
• diffuse group;
• The nominal group;
• The team.
In modern pedagogy, we are increasingly talking about children's communities. The term children's society suggested by Usova AP Usova emphasizes that the greatest opportunities for the formation of the "children's society" are provided by children's play activity.
The concept of children's (co) society is different from the concept of "children's group". A group is a formal structure (class, detachment, etc.), functioning according to the rules, according to regulations, by norms. The community is understood as a human association by values and meanings, it is permeated and based not only on business, but also on "personal" relations.
The children's community - is a group of children united by common activities (play, work, artistic aesthetic, etc.) under the guidance of a teacher who has certain responsibilities and is responsible for organizing it.
Q. A. Karakovskii and LI Novikova proposed a scheme for the development of the children's community. It is presented in Table. 7.1. The community is developing from the format of the conglomerate to the format of autonomy.
Stages of the development of the children's community
A group of unfamiliar children not affiliated with a common common goal.
Children take outwardly set goals and conditions. Interpersonal relations begin to take shape. A single vital activity is formed.
Business relations develop
There is a formal and informal structure of the group. There are business relations, which develop into emotional-personal. Aim for the overall result
There are two kinds of autonomy: the collective (in its classical sense) and the corporation (the opposition of its group to others, isolation, group egoism)
Self-organization of children's communities
The children's community is formed not only on the basis of a formally separated group - the school class, the detachment in the health camp, the association in the organization of additional education, etc. In today's life, children's communities often arise spontaneously due to the children's own activity associated with certain events or circumstances. For example, inclusion in social networks; reaction to the situation or attitude (entering the class of newcomer, injustice, erection in the courtyard of small game forms, children's town); event (filling of the rink, sports competitions); interesting new object (gadget, lego); certain process activities (participation in the project, preparation of a performance or a holiday, excursion or a trip), etc.
Self-organizing children's communities, thus, are characterized by the following features:
• they are short-lived and spontaneous;
• Often there is no adult organizer of the children's community, which can lead to the emergence of undesirable effects in the educational context;
• A source of self-organization is a factor, an integrator, in which all the above-mentioned factors can act. Whatever the integrator of the self-organizing children's (or child-adult) community, the main thing is that it causes the children's interest or emotional response;
• The basis of self-organization of children's communities is joint activity (creative, design, research, creative), social interaction or communication.
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