The first acquaintance with the world of economic relations in the child occurs with the help of money: the child spends his pocket money, sees that the parents pay for purchases in the store. It is believed that to understand what money is, children begin at about 4-5 years, but only half of the children of this age understand the dignity of coins and bills.
All without exception, junior schoolchildren have experience with the money they receive from their parents. At the same time, the following models of giving pocket money to schoolchildren are possible.
A: The child receives a regular amount agreed in advance with the parents. Some children receive money every week, some - every day, some - once or twice a month. A regularity is observed: the younger the child, the more often he receives a certain amount from his parents (although it is much smaller).
B: The child receives money irregularly, and there is no set amount: "if I ask", "how many parents think it is necessary", "every month in different ways."
Q: As such, the concept of pocket money the student is unknown. He receives money for studying, for grades, for the work done at home.
Let's turn to the experience of the past. Despite the fact that the allocated models of giving pocket money to children have always existed in parallel, it is still possible to avenge certain periods of domination in the society of this or that model. So, in the article of the sociologist V. Zelizer it is noted that at the beginning of the 20th century, In Europe, educators urged parents to apply the "B" model, that is, how to pay children for doing household chores. It was believed that this demonstrates visually the link "labor" - money .
In the 1930s. these views of the pedagogical community have changed. There was a theory that the main function of pocket money is to foster a sense of price in a child. The model B unconditional provision of money to the child. It was alleged that in this case the child more consciously delves into the economic reality, tries to use the money profitable. Soviet pedagogy adhered to the same point of view, considering that under such a model the motive of money would not become dominant in the structure of the individual. Money and their earning do not subordinate to themselves, scientists believed, the installation of selfless help comes to the forefront.
In addition, in Soviet pedagogy was extended one more view that money "spoil" child and they should not be given to a child at all. A number of publications in the post-Soviet period have shown that such an approach can lead to negative results: either to the child's hypertrophied desire to own money, or, being delayed, compensated in adulthood through a distorted need for material well-being.
Thus, the central idea of economic education is the constant development of man as a subject of activity, development of economic conditions. The emphasis is on the person as the initiator of economic activity, i.e. pioneer and creator of the matter as a whole.
Means of education of diligence, creative attitude to work and teaching
It is a mistake to believe that labor education in the school is carried out only in technology lessons. Labor education should cover all areas of the pupil's school life: lessons in the subjects provided for by the school curriculum; extra-curricular and extracurricular activities during games, walks, excursions, holidays; the process of social labor of students: cleaning the class, performing permanent and temporary assignments; in the dining room, library.
The following means of labor, economic upbringing and vocational guidance of students were justified at the school:
a) in the course of studying the subjects provided for by the school curriculum: literary reading, mathematics, the surrounding world, technology, economics (where it exists);b) in after-hours activities. In classes in circles (embroidery, design, origami, etc.). In the process of implementing special programs, such as the "City of Masters", "Skillful Hands" and others; c) in extra-curricular and extracurricular work with students: during games, competitions, city tours, enterprises, when visiting businesses, banks, shops, museums
d) in the process of organizing and carrying out project works of students, collective creative activity;
e) in various types of economic activity and social labor of students.
The effectiveness of means of labor and economic education is ensured if these means assume:
• involving students in socially significant activities;
• stimulating a free moral choice for students of a variant of behavior in problematic economic and labor situations;
• Inclusion of children in joint assessment-reflective activities (to assess the consequences of the economic decisions of the heroes of the fairy tale, the possible consequences of one or another act of a friend, etc.).
Imagine possible traditional and episodic labor cases in primary school:
• checking the state of textbooks ( Booksheet Hospital );
• excursions in Polytechnic Museum, a museum of folk crafts, Space Museum, Museum of technical creativity in the enterprise, the city ( City Wizards );
• Review (making) New Year's ornaments ( Santa Claus Workshop ), feeders ( Birds in Winter ), souvenirs for the holiday;
• Meeting with parents of different professions;
• a contest of work skills ("And the girls", etc.), creative works, handicrafts
• Studies ( Timing of My Time & quot ;, My Contribution to Family Income & quot ;, Technological Chains );
• Projects ( Income from Waste );
• business game "If I was the director".
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