New Information Learning Technologies
New information technology training (NITO) is essentially an application in education of information technology used to transfer information, its processing into knowledge, personality development and evaluation of the quality of education. Simultaneously, this is the totality of knowledge and methods of activity for working with information resources, for mastering the ways of collecting and processing information, in which the use of computer learning technologies based on the ideas of programmed instruction plays a significant role. However, other technical means are used in NITO - audio-visual systems, electronic teaching aids, dictionaries-reference books, information transfer systems over distance, including video conferencing, Internet resources, search engines and other means integrated into texts or presented as additional support training programs.
The software used in NITO can be divided into several categories:
- training, training and monitoring systems;
- systems for information retrieval;
- modeling programs;
- the tools of cognition;
- means of communication.
Training, Training, and Control Models
systems. Many higher education institutions develop and use automated training systems for different academic disciplines (AOC). They contain complexes of educational materials that ensure the development of new content, the development of skills and procedures, demonstrations, questions and tasks that provide internal and external feedback, as well as options for adjusting the process in accordance with the actions of the students and the success of the tasks.
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AOCs are usually based on a tool environment that provides users with the ability to vary, supplement and track the progress of work.
The teacher can enter additional information, demonstrations, practical assignments, questions for test control in the database, forming a specific scenario for the upcoming lesson.
With the help of AOS is carried out:
- identification of the initial level of knowledge, skills, individual level of students' readiness for the next stage of work;
- readiness of training materials, adaptation of it in complexity level
- management of cognitive activity (puzzling, regulation, help, correction, instruction);
- final control of learning outcomes;
- registration and analysis of performance indicators by each student and the group as a whole.
A special role in the AOS system is played by intelligent learning systems that implement flexible variational scenarios, oriented to individual abilities and characteristics of students.
The pupil, in accordance with the scenario chosen by him or suggested to him, works with the teaching materials of the program. Automated control over the assimilation of the material is provided, allowing the student to choose the sequence of cognitive actions (the trajectory of learning) by himself or according to the results of self-control, or to adopt the sequence and pace of work laid down in the program. The work of the student is recorded and recorded in the database, so the student and the teacher can always get information about the work done.
AOS systems are constantly improving. With the advent of the Windows operating system, dialog communication became available in so-called interactive programs, the wide use of graphics (diagrams, drawings, photographs, drawings). All this provides opportunities for the development of creative thinking, intuition, imagery, imagination. Strongly expanded the educational capabilities of AOS devices for working with CDs. Increased performance and the arsenal of PC capabilities make it possible to use multimedia technologies , which combine to reproduce text, graphics, sound, video and animation in a dialogue mode , which contributes to a holistic and emotional perception of the material, it became possible to show video clips, to reveal the dynamics of the development of phenomena and processes. Designing situations of virtual (possible, but imaginary) reality, creating the illusion of real-time presence in a stereotypically presented world, opens up new possibilities for the development of variational thinking, projective abilities, recreating imagination.
Significantly expanded the capabilities of the AOS introduction to its composition in the 90's. Hypertext (Hypertext) is a collection of diverse information that can be located in different files and even in different computers and include, along with graphics and text, and multimedia - information (sound, video, animation). A distinctive feature of hypertext is the presence of hyperlinks that establish a link between different texts, which allows you to move from this text to another (site, text, document) located in the broadcast program or on the Internet, determines alternative paths, study paths. Hyperlinks provide the ability to quickly find information by direct selection. Hypertext technology lies at the heart of building Internet networks, electronic dictionaries, encyclopedias, various information systems. Using hyperlinks, you can choose from a number of offered your own version of the educational route. Hypertext technology made it convenient to use a variety of electronic publications: textbooks, reference books, dictionaries, encyclopedias, which gives advantages to e-book compared with the traditional. A particular kind of training systems are training systems or modules designed to consolidate and process skills and information skills.
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To control the results of training, special automated control systems are used, the creation of which requires the development of a polling strategy, control tasks, texts, a bank of questions. Under the given scheme there is an automated processing of results, which often requires live work of analysts, provides monitoring of the process and its timely correction.
Information retrieval systems. Information retrieval systems in education are still a new kind of software that greatly facilitates the search for necessary information and contributes to the development of information retrieval skills, without which modern information competence is impossible. Teachers and students can widely use search engines on the Internet, search systems for scientific and technical information centers, electronic catalogs of libraries and media libraries (a collection of various media, including on electronic basis), as well as electronic dictionaries and encyclopedias, hypertext systems, of which already there was a speech.Simulation, including computer, is one of the means of reproducing real or educational situations, in which the subject acquires the ability to orientate, evaluate, choose the way of activity, master the ways of transforming the situation into a necessary one state. A visual representation of those processes that can not be observed under normal conditions, a comparison of different visualization methods (diagrams, diagrams, video frames, texts), the ability to observe dynamic processes that are difficult or impossible to reproduce in the audience, playing various situations, the parameters and conditions of which can be changed , constructing models of a virtual nature - all this can be successfully used to form the estimated, analytical and creative activity of students.
In modeling programs, you can use interactive graphics, a dialog that allows you to "scoop up" information about the properties, the possibilities of transforming objects, turning and viewing them from different positions with the mouse or handles of devices, connecting new sources, etc. It is possible to create a special educational environment. With the help of mathematical models, laboratory experiments, animations, it is possible to determine possible numerical values, to carry out a qualitative assessment of the expected changes, which then can be realistically implemented in actual design.
Studying the preferences of trainees and the results of their work with modeling programs shows that for students with a pronounced verbal type of perception and thinking, even in the study of dynamic processes, static images accompanied by a textual description are preferable. And students with a predominance of figurative thinking get more adequate representation when using animated dynamic illustrations, but provided they have sufficient preliminary training.
Information tools for learning and communication. In addition to the tools and views already discussed (automated learning systems, information retrieval, modeling programs, hypertext and multimedia systems), there are a number of other possibilities that allow students to develop initiative, imagination, imagination, creative activity and qualities necessary for productive activity.
Thus, text editors not only facilitate the writing of written assignments - abstracts, essays, reports, etc., but also serve as a stimulator for improving the text, helping to identify problems and errors in the text. If the work is done on the computer, you can use your own or borrowed from different sources of graphics - formulas, diagrams, diagrams.On this basis, you can create a graph or chart that, each time you change the parameters that you enter for calculation in spreadsheet formulas, change their configuration.
The use of spreadsheets due to the rigor of the presentation of the initial data and formulas necessary for obtaining the results, contributes to the development of algorithmic thinking in students, a systematic and structured approach to the presentation of information and the solution of the problem posed.
A special role in the development of spatial imagination, imaginative thinking, artistic taste is played by graphic editors.They serve to create computer presentations of the work done, visual illustrations to the text, lecture, seminar. Graphic editors make it relatively easy to build complex geometric constructions, do sketch design projects for objects, design rooms, expand the possibilities of computer design.
A powerful reserve of informatization of education was the development of information telecommunications networks.
The global network Internet provides access to huge volumes of information in various information bases of the planet. Among the basic objects of Intemet - technologies are www (world wide web ), a world wide web of hundreds of millions of information sites linked by hyperlinks. In the network, you can search for information, get in touch with other people or online programs, answer questions or fill out special forms on web -pages.
Significant opportunities for communication of trainees (especially in correspondence and distance learning) provide e-mail (e-mail). It serves as a means, the channel of constant communication of the trainee with the teacher. The latter can send assignments and instructions on this channel, and the trainee can ask questions, clarify assignments, receive consultations, and send reports.
Electronic videoconferencing is increasingly used. Using an asynchronous communication environment structured in a certain way, you can write down information, give your own estimates and suggestions, ask a question, get acquainted with the texts of other conference participants. Asynchronous mode of operation makes it possible to think through the answers, compare them with other versions, develop reflexive and communicative abilities. The possibilities of using different kinds of files (graphics, sound, animation) make such virtual seminars and conferences quite effective.
Videoconferencing, conducted in synchronous mode, recreates the situation of real presence, enables real-time communication. This form provides for the possibility of communication of various types: one-on-one (individual consultation), one with many (lecture, group consultation), many with many (space bridge). This type of communication is readily used by universities that have a network of branches, as well as for the development of international and interregional relations.
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