Non-violence as a form of attitude towards nature and all living...

Nonviolence as a form of relation to nature and all living things

By now, there are three areas in the understanding of the essence of human-nature interaction. The first can be called anthropocentrism, i.e. attitude to nature is viewed from the perspective of the good of man, who is master over her. The second - naturocentrism, when nature is regarded as a perfect organism, worthy of love, veneration, worship. The third direction postulates the organic relationship between man and nature, not just unity, as was done in classical Indian philosophy, but a unity based on the system nature of nature, the correlation of its components.

The most vividly anthropocentric view, according to many philosophers and experts in the field of environmental ethics, is expressed in the concept of Christian morality. In a condensed form, the basic statements of the anthropocentric view are well expressed by B. Kallikott. Here are some of them.

God - the kingdom of the sacred and mysterious - embodies nature.

Man is created in the image and likeness of God and thus is detached from all other nature.

God gave man the control of the natural world.

God commanded man to multiply and conquer nature. The God-likeness of man is the basis for his inner value. Since not human objects are devoid of God-likeness, they are considered morally imperfect. At best - they are recognized for their instrumental value.

All that was said was fixed in the Aristotelian Thomist theology: rational life is the guarantor of the existence of nature, and unreasonable things exist only as a means to maintain the mind-endowed human being. [12]

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These provisions of B. Kallikott well illustrate the special role of man in the world, his dominant significance in nature. In principle, they formed the basis of modern views of people of a technocratic society on nature, ecology and the need to carry out nature conservation work. It is recognized that resources are not inexhaustible, that a person should think not only about immediate needs, but also about future generations. Therefore, he is obliged to do as little harm as possible to nature, but proceeds only from the concept of his own good. For example, if the riches of nature were unlimited, and the resources were inexhaustible, then man would consider it perfectly permissible to use it more intensively, to influence nature by more aggressive methods, to rule over it more fully and more fully. But by now the attainment of moderation even within this "old" ethics are still unattainable.

Naturocentric direction is allocated conditionally, however some characteristic features of this approach can be found both in religious systems and in philosophy, for example, in the ideas of Francis of Assisi, who formulated an alternative view of nature in Christianity. The basis is faith in the virtue of humility not only of an individual, but of humanity as a whole. He, as it were, reduces a man from his throne of monarchical domination over every creature and establishes democracy between all forms of life. Consequently, St. Francis affirms the spiritual self-worth of everything that exists in nature, a person must recognize this self-worth and not interfere with his activities in the natural course of events.

Representatives of the third direction are attempting to formulate a new ecological ethic based on a deep understanding of the global interconnection of all living, human involvement in such a relationship.

It should be noted that in a number of Eastern religions, the unity of all things is proclaimed, because in all a certain single substance predominates. Hence the conclusion is made about the necessity of loving care for everything that is in nature. For example, the same B. Kallikkot notes that Confucian ethics is incompatible with the isolation of man, his opposition to nature. The well-being of mankind and the welfare of nature, the future of mankind and the future of nature, the richness and versatility of human life, and the richness of nature are the indissoluble parts of a single whole [12]. At the same time, here is felt, albeit a highly humane attitude to all living and nonliving, the orderliness of everything that exists. In reality, as is known from experience, everything is much more complicated. Therefore, a more systematic approach is more attractive, where everything has its own place, including a person.

In domestic science at the present time there are two opposing approaches to the interpretation of the relationship of man to the natural world. The first of these is due to the traditional and widespread anthropocentric view. The second - modern, having deep roots, for example, even in Buddhism, an eccentric approach. Their essence is clearly and consistently disclosed in the book by S. D. Deryabo and V. A. Yasvin "Ecological pedagogy and psychology"; [9]. Let us cite the main parameters and distinctive features of anthropocentric and eco-centric consciousness revealed by them, which most adequately reflect the uniqueness of these approaches (Table 1).

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A comparative analysis of the characteristics of anthropocentric and eco-centric consciousness makes it possible to establish that ecocen- tric consciousness has such characteristics as harmonious interaction of man and nature, rejection of all sorts of hierarchy, focus on satisfying the needs of both man himself and nature.

As one of the concrete ways of constructing a person's relationship with nature, with all living, based

Table 1

◘The structure of anthropocentric and ecocentric ecological consciousness

Anthropocentric consciousness

Ecocentric consciousness

1. The highest value is a person

1. The supreme value is the harmonious development of man and nature

2. Hierarchical picture of the world

2. Refusal of a hierarchical picture of the world

3. The goal of interaction with nature is to satisfy certain pragmatic needs

3. The goal of interaction with nature is the maximum satisfaction of both human needs and the needs of the entire natural community

4. "Pragmatic imperative": correctly allowed what is useful to a person

4. "Ecological imperative": only that which does not violate the ecological balance existing in nature is correctly permitted

5. Nature arises as an object of human activity

5. Nature is perceived as an equal subject in terms of interaction with a person

6. Ethical norms and rules do not apply to interaction with the natural world

6. Ethical norms and rules apply to both human interaction and interaction with nature

7. The development of nature is conceived as a process that must be subordinated to the goals and tasks of man

7. The development of nature is conceived as a process of mutually beneficial unity

8. The nature protection activities are dictated by the distant pragmatism: the need to preserve the natural environment so that future generations can use it

8. Nature conservation activities are dictated by the need to preserve nature for its own sake

on the ecocentric principle, the ethic of A. Schweitzer - the Nobel Peace Prize laureate. They were offered a special philosophical and ethical approach, which determines the originality of the relationship of man to the world.

The concept of Albert Schweitzer, called The ethics of reverence for life & quot ;, based on the following main provisions:

1) The lifeless idea of ​​the world must be replaced by a real world full of life.

2) About the world, a person knows only that everything that exists, like himself, is a manifestation of the will to live. To this world, a person has both a passive and an active attitude. As a being in a passive attitude toward the world, he comes to a spiritual connection with him through humility; as a being who stands in an active relation to the world, he comes to a spiritual connection with him because he does not live for himself alone, but feels himself one with the whole life that is in the sphere of his influence.

3) Having begun to think about the secret of his life and about the connections that connect him to life, a person can no longer treat his and his life differently, as in accordance with the principle of "Reverence for life," and this principle can not fail manifest themselves in the ethical world-and life-affirmation, which is expressed in his actions; he will not just live, but truly experience life.

4) For a person who is truly ethical, life is sacred, even that which is on the lower border of the scale of values, he makes distinctions only in each specific case, under pressure of necessity, for example, when he has to decide which of the two he must sacrifice lives to save the other. If the ethic of Reverence before life has affected him, writes A. Schweitzer, he harms life and destroys it only by necessity, which he can not avoid, and never because of thoughtlessness. How much he is a free man, so he uses every opportunity to experience bliss: to be able to help life and ward off suffering and destruction from it " [49, p. 342].

The ethics of A. Schweitzer are not only humanistic. Recognizing the fact that a person can not avoid violence and destruction of life, nevertheless, he, as a reasonable being, will not do this because of simple "thoughtlessness", i.e. on a subjective basis, arbitrarily remembering always that "he is responsible for the life that is sacrificed." Such an approach can help solve the global problem: to achieve harmonization of human-nature interaction, the full use of one's own mind, when the individual realizes both the value not only of the surrounding world, but also of himself as an individual and understands that these values ​​are linked together in indissoluble bonds.

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