Nonviolence in Islam - Pedagogy and psychology of nonviolence in education

Non-violence in Islam

Let's turn to other religious systems, where the problem of non-violence is posed, first of all to such world religions as Islam and Christianity.

At first glance, it may seem that in Islam this problem is not raised at all because of the orthodoxy of the religious concept itself and dogmatics, but this view is somewhat superficial. In fact, in comparison with other religions, Islam is less tolerant, it calls for a holy war - jihad, a war for faith. In Islam, a strict and clear system of rules of conduct is established in relation to the co-religionists, where good, justice, assistance to the poor and many others are elevated to the rank of virtues.

The dogmatism of Islam is quite simple. As noted by the famous French researcher of Islam A. Masset [22], it is reduced to the following provisions:

- faith in God, consisting of the inner perception of faith, confession by word, the commission of good deeds;

- the recognition of the existence of angels and evil spirits;

- waiting for the terrible judgment: on the last day of the world, the Dead will be resurrected and everyone will be rewarded for their deeds, who will go to heaven, and who will go to hell;

- the existence of divine predestination, since Allah has given each man his destiny in advance.

In accordance with dogmatics, practical and ceremonial commandments are built, including: fivefold daily prayer; obligatory ablution before prayer and in other specially stipulated cases, tax in favor of the poor, annual fasting and pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca.

Let us consider directly how the problem of nonviolence in Islam was posed. We have already noted the duality of the approach to this issue. Unlike other religions, Islam fully justifies violence against unbelievers, especially those religions that do not have scripture. The Koran abounds with appeals against the polytheists: "... fight with them until there is a temptation, and religion will all belong to Allah"; [15]. The blame for killing the infidels is completely removed: "You did not kill them, but Allah killed them ... [15]. And the deceased in the war with the disbelievers does not even die: "... do not consider those who are killed in the way of Allah dead. No, they are alive! They receive their inheritance from their Lord [15].

At the same time, there is an opinion that the position that Islam was imposed on all nations only with the help of jihad should not be considered correct. So R. Dozi notes that the holy war was made a duty only in the only case when the enemies of Islam turn out to be attackers; if anyone understands the prescription of the Koran otherwise, then the arbitrary interpretation of the theologians is to blame. The very same error is the view that Islam has spread in the world by force. [18]

A fairly strict system of punishment is envisaged in the Koran for various kinds of violations of ethical and legal norms. As A. Masset notes, all actions of people are divided into five categories:

1) duty or necessary action; This includes actions whose performance is rewarded, and non-fulfillment entails punishment;

2) the recommended action for which a reward is supposed, but whose failure is not punished;

3) permissible action or indifferent action;

4) a reprehensible act, but not punishable;

5) The prohibited action and punishable [22].

In the Qur'an, the so-called law of balancing in its originally original formula: "an eye for an eye", "a tooth for a tooth", which expresses an understanding of justice through the recognition of revenge, is fully reflected. But the essence of justice is that it is necessary to respond (revenge) to a homogeneous action: "O those who believe! You are ordered retribution for the dead: free - for free and slave - for the slave, and woman - for the woman [15]. At the same time, this kind of prescription allows, in contrast to some pagan religions, the deferment of punishment and the payment of a fine, but only for the first murder. In general, the Koran directly condemns the murder, excepting is only a holy war - jihad. Differences are made in premeditated murder and accidental killing. In the first case: "And if someone kills a believer intentionally, then retribution to him is gehenna for an eternal stay there" [15]. In the second case, revenge is not applicable and is replaced by ransom. It should also be pointed to the fact of strict punishment for theft, which involves cutting off a wrist or a thief's hand.

A system of punishments and moral damage is envisaged, for example, usury is forbidden by many verses of the Koran.

We meet with the facts of belittling women's rights, with the justification of restricting their freedom, discrimination, in fact with the legalization of coercion. The attitude towards a woman in Islam is determined by her physiological characteristics, given to her by the Lord. In this regard, she, being the mother and guardian of the house, is more occupied with family problems. On the other hand, the Qur'an specifically defines the property and social rights of women, which, on the contrary, contributes to the consolidation of its status in the family and society.

Thus, we see that in the religious system under consideration, the ideas of nonviolence to pierce a place was rather difficult. But, nevertheless, because nonviolence is indeed a universal value, it could not be left untouched, at least to some extent in Islam. First, there is a tendency towards meekness and kindness, a reward is promised for the God-fearing ... restraining anger, forgiving people ... Verily, Allah loves those who do good! [15]. Secondly, there is also a tendency towards non-resistance to evil by violence, which, as is known, goes through a through line in Christianity.

Analyzing the second case, we refer to the analysis made by IL Kryvelev [18], who gives three translations of the same place of the Koran by three authors: A. Krymsky, A. Nikolayev and I. Krachkovsky. A. Krymsky quotes this quotation from the Koran: "Try to do good for evil, and then the one who had enmity with you will become your friend - the defender." However, this perfection is achieved only by those who are patient ". In the translation of A. Nikolaev this place looks even more expressive: "Give good for evil, and you will see how your enemy turns to you as a friend and patron ... But only a persistent person will reach such perfection: only he reaches it, to whom it turns out special benevolence. " As noted by IL Kryvelev, we have a cliche of the Gospel of the Sermon on the Mount. However, in the newest translation made by I. Krachkovsky, this phrase looks much more vague: "Reject evil by what is better" [18]. And in another place: "The good and the evil are not equal. Reject the fact that it is better, and this is the one with whom you have a feud, as if he were a hot friend. But it was not granted to anyone, except those who tolerated [18]. Probably, this is, indeed, a more accurate translation, which also manifests the idea of ​​nonviolence.

Considering the problem of nonviolence in Islam, it should be noted that here again there were devotees of the idea of ​​nonviolence. Widespread fame received views and real practical activities, based on the ideas of nonviolence. This is Khan Abdul Ghaffar-khan-Pashtun, leader of the Islamic non-violent independence movement on the Northwest Frontier of British India, the founder of the world's first professional non-violent army, called "Khudai Khidmatgaran" [2]. It was based on military discipline and belief in nonviolence, Satyagraha in the understanding of Mahatma Gandhi (on this movement we will stop in the next section). Khan Ghaffar urged his people to return British medals, to refrain from visiting British universities and not to speak in British courts. It seemed that he was impressed by the idea that whenever British troops collided with an armed uprising, they ultimately always defeated the rebels. But this can not be said of those who used non-violence against the troops. Gafflar said: "I am going to give you such a weapon that the police and the army will not be able to resist. This is the weapon of the Prophet, of which you do not yet know. This weapon is patience and justice. No power on earth can withstand it. " Ghaffar Khan recruited his first volunteers from the number of young people who graduated from his school. Trained and dressed in the same uniform, they served under their commanders and went from one village to another to attract new volunteers. At first they wore a simple white top shirt, but the white quickly became dirty. Several men painted their shirts at the local tannery in red and brown, and it was this distinctive color that gave the activists of the movement "Khudai Hidmatgaran" name "Red Shirts".

Under the influence of Ghaffar Khan, the movement defended all non-violent protests and found them justification in Islam. Ghaffar Khan did not think that Islam and nonviolence are incompatible. Despite his commitment to Islam, the movement was characterized by respect for all religions. On several occasions, when Hindus and Sidhas were attacked in Peshawar, the members of "Khudai Hidmatgaran" helped protect their lives and property. He said: "The Holy Prophet Mohammed came to this world and taught us:" That man is a Muslim who will never hurt anyone by word or deed, but who works for the good and happiness of all God's creatures. " Faith in God is to love your brothers. " And one more quote: "There is nothing surprising in the Muslim or Pashtun who, like me, has made his credo a refusal of violence. This is not a new credo. It was known a thousand and four hundred years ago to the Prophet at a time when he was in Mecca ".

The above example is quite revealing, it demonstrates that nonviolence, indeed, is a value and finds its justification even in religions, which initially, in general, are far from the ideals of nonviolence. This can fully include Islam. As can be seen from the above, in Islam we come across some duality. On the one hand, violence in the name of religious ideals is justified, the law of "balancing" is functioning. as a principle of justice "for good - good", "for evil - evil". On the other hand, forgiveness, moderation, the ability to restrain emotions, do good deeds, respond to evil are welcome.

thematic pictures

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)