As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:


• what is the object and subject of pedagogy;

• the main philosophical and psychological concepts of pedagogy;

be able to

• distinguish the closeness and difference between the two humanitarian disciplines - psychology and pedagogy;


• The skills of considering pedagogical strategies.

The object of pedagogy is a person in his aspiration for knowledge and moral values, and the subject is the education and upbringing of people. The ancestors of pedagogy (from Greek paidagogike ; paidos - child and ag - leading, educating) recognized the ancient Chinese thinker Confucius and the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates. To the pedagogical activity, Confucius started at the age of 30, opening the first private school in the history of China, focusing on four disciplines: "culture" (written classics), "behavior" (ethics), devotion (policy) and trust (psychology). The conditions of admission and training gave all comers the same opportunities, "regardless of the genus for a minimum fee - a bunch of dried meat.

Socratic teaching ideas

Socrates is perhaps the first in European history to think about what qualities adorn a person. The ancient philosopher was an ardent preacher of knowledge. In his opinion, knowledge is primarily a virtue, bad is ignorance. Socrates believed that a person should strive for new and new truths. The Sophists treated the truth ironically. They had a common goal - to puzzle, to amaze with a paradox, to impress. Let naive listeners admire his mind. And what should I take with me on my life journey? Almost nothing. Everyone has his own truth. But how is philosophy possible, if everyone has his own arguments and his own outcome in the dispute? Socrates with all the vividness of his brilliant nature began to seek an answer to this question. Perhaps there is an all-powerful law that stands above all personal opinions, the yardstick according to which everyone's eyes must be tested and directed. The thinker believed in the truth and in her right to criticism. This conviction can not be proved, for it is the condition of every proof. In whom such a belief is not, in that it can be awakened if he learns to think about himself.

Only this self-clarity is required by Socrates from his fellow citizens, and it was not for nothing that the god whose temple was adorned with the inscription "Know yourself." It's about the commandment, which is written on the temple of Apollo in Delphi. How does knowledge begin? A person can direct his thought to the outside world, which attracts the glimmer of mystery. But his own mind can get a different direction, because many people understand the problems, focusing on their own experience, as if from within. In this regard, one must know oneself to discover other mysteries of the world.

Hellenic enlightenment quickly led to the fact that the society began to dominate the most diverse opinions. Socrates, however, sought truth as a measure to which the individual must obey. In this demand, he is a true Greek, and in the person of Socrates Greek science in complete self-consciousness finds the principle on which the Greek art rests. But this measure must be found for general consciousness.

So, the meaning of Socrates is that he established the idea of ​​knowledge. Sophists recognized only the natural product of thinking, which is formed in everyone as an inevitable opinion. For Socrates, there is a norm according to which the value of these natural products of thought is determined. This supreme necessity, which opened in the dialogical striving for truth, can be called the legislation of reason. In this sense, it is true that Socrates discovered reason. He was the first to declare that there is something meaningful for all people and knowledge exists only where it is recognized.

The search for Socrates truths were in close connection with the spiritual state of his people. The decomposition discovered by the philosopher is based on the destruction of the general consciousness, with which once everyone felt bound. Truth can exist only if there is something universal about individuals that they must obey, so it is possible to seek truth only when individuals, despite all the differences in opinions, jointly turn to what they all recognize. Truth is a joint thought, therefore the philosophy of Socrates is not self-deepening and meditation, not teaching and learning: it is a joint quest, a serious conversation. A necessary form of truth is dialogue. Where two people exchange their views, there is a force compelling them to recognize the truth, a higher need, different from that which, in the course of life's circumstances, led to the opinion of each of them. Before, each of them could have only those ideas that formed as a necessary product of his entire life; Now, trying to find a meaningful idea for both, they come to the conclusion that in addition to the involuntary appearance of representations, there is a mandatory rule for all, to which they must obey if they want to find the truth. In this dialogical philosophy, the normative legislation penetrates into the consciousness of its participants, the subordination or insubordination which constitutes the yardstick of the truth of arbitrarily arisen ideas. Anyone who wants to prove something to another or is ready to admit to being defeated by his evidence recognizes the norm that prevails as a principle of criticism over individuals and over the naturally necessary flow of their ideas. In the course of joint searches people come to what everyone who honestly strives for truth should recognize.

Without this norm there is no truth and knowledge, therefore, for Socrates and his great followers who have developed these thoughts, an important role is played by the opposition of the opinion to knowledge.

The pedagogical concept of Socrates is that the main life goal of a person should be his moral self-improvement: a person has the mind to direct it to create good and find truth. Socrates is one of the founders of the doctrine of the good nature of man. He attached great importance to the natural predisposition of people and believed that their abilities manifest themselves in self-knowledge: "Who knows himself, he knows what is good for him, and clearly understands what he can and can not." Education, according to Socrates, has the power to transform a person from a negative to a positive image. The philosopher believed that people, if they get education, become excellent, useful figures. Remaining without education, they are very bad and harmful.

In the philosophy of Socrates, as in the philosophy of Plato, as well as in the worldview of our time, upbringing and philosophy perform the same function - they help to form a person who knows not only to distinguish truth from error but creatively approaching the tasks assigned to it .

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