Order out of chaos
Consider the results of long searches in the field of pedagogical laws and laws. This will allow us, on the one hand, to pay tribute to the tremendous work of the ascetics-educators, who collected, summarized and systematized the precious experience of instruction, on the other - to look at the historical scientific foundation that forms the basis of modern theory.
In a primitive society, mankind gradually accumulated practical knowledge on the training of the younger generations. Apparently, at that time practical rules of training were developed and passed on from generation to generation, allowing more and more successfully to solve the tasks of preparing young people for life. One of these rules, undoubtedly originating in the deepest antiquity, is learning through the practice of life, the inheritance of the experience of elders.
In the states of the ancient world the problems of practical training, based mainly on traditions-the generalized experience of previous generations-were successfully solved. Ancient scientists Plato, Aristotle and especially Quintilian made the first attempts to generalize the practice of teaching in the form of a set of recommendations-rules. These rules are formulated by them in a series of general philosophical positions that generalize the wisdom of life. The ancient philosophers did not study the problems of the study specifically and deeply, and their largely correct philosophical views did not lead to the creation of the didactic theory, just as they led, for example, to the creation of the principles of logic.
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Already Plato and Aristotle correctly understood that for the discovery of the law it is necessary to leave the world of immediate sensations and become acquainted with the actual order of the phenomena in which laws are revealed. However, they understood the teaching not as a science, but as an art to teach other sciences, the practical activities of people who possess knowledge, as a trade. Art does not obey laws. You can only talk about the rules of the performance of the training, which every instructor should know. Many of the rules formulated in ancient times also apply in the modern school, for example: "Who best alternates gymnastic exercises with muscular art (mental education) and adequately presents them to the soul, then we would be entitled to consider ones who have attained perfection" ; (Plato). Socrates expressed a brilliant idea, which perfectly corresponds to the modern spirit of learning: the appointment of a teacher is to help to give birth to thoughts in the head of his pupil. Himself Socrates called the "midwife thought." Quintilian in his Instructions to oratory art deeply noticed that not everyone can give an education, but only one who is familiar with the techniques necessary for this, as well as with the conditions of the spiritual life of the pet.
There were attempts to consider the rules formulated in ancient times, scientific laws and even laws. This is not true, since the rules do not have the distinctive features of the latter. Most likely, these are practical generalizations emphasizing some important interrelations between the phenomena of learning. They can be classified as regularities that make up the axiomatic positions of didactics.
The Middle Ages represent a difficult period in the development of pedagogical thought. Schools for catechumens, catechism schools, monastic life, statutes, mysticism, scholasticism, mendicant orders - these words are associated with gloomy pages in the history of pedagogy. The rules of instruction in these times also worked, but, unlike the rules of antiquity arising from the natural life and activities of people, they were often the fruits of Jesuit fabrications, the mystical imagination of ascetics and the ever-warring fathers-abbots.
In the XVIII century. pedagogy is regarded as applied natural science and believes that it obeys the laws of biology. The complete restructuring of pedagogy on a naturalistic basis was made by J. A. Komensky and J. Locke. Under their influence, the laws of pedagogy (they acted simultaneously and principles and rules) are defined in three aspects: socio-historical, natural-historical and psychological. Later, Pestalozzi, Rousseau, Disterweg, Ushinsky, Tolstoy and other educational researchers no longer confine themselves to general principles, but try to establish specific patterns, which translates into the desire to turn pedagogy into the sum of specific prescriptions.
In accordance with the modern understanding of the categories of law, principle and rule in the pedagogical heritage of this period, we do not find attempts to strictly identify the interrelationships and interdependencies between didactic phenomena. Those primary generalizations, sometimes very broad, bold, based on the comprehension of experience, can be classified as regularities, and the resulting practical guidelines for action - as rules for learning. However, this was understood by the great teachers of the past, modestly trying to present pedagogy in the form of a system of rules, practical guidelines. So, for example, Comenius, who made the first attempt in this direction, presents didactics in the form of a system of rules grouped according to the thematic feature: "Basic rules of ease of learning and teaching" ("The Great Didactics", Chapter XVII); "The basic rules of natural teaching and learning", "Nine rules of art to teach sciences"; (Chapter XX), and the like. Disterveg, bringing the number of rules to 33, groups them by the objects to which they belong: the first group - the rules in relation to the teacher; the second - the rules in relation to the subject of teaching; the third - the rules in relation to the student. At the same time, Diesterweg calls some of the rules simultaneously laws. Below we recall those of them that operate in the modern school.
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Comenius and Disterweg had many followers who tried to present didactics in the form of memos consisting of a series of rules grouped around very narrow topics: how to prepare for lessons; how to ask questions to students; how to conduct exercises; how to fix the material; how to give assignments to the house, etc.
Many teachers of the past authoritatively assured them of the pedagogical laws they discovered. One of the first who announced this was Pestalozzi. He formulated the law of mental development of the child - from vague contemplation to clear ideas and from them - to clear concepts. In the process of cognition, the great, as Pestalozzi calls it, is also manifested: "Every object acts upon our senses, depending on the degree of its physical proximity or remoteness." Based on these laws, Pestalozzi formulates the principle: the knowledge of truth follows from the person from self-knowledge.
Paying tribute to the pedagogical genius of Pestalozzi, his wise practical recommendations, it should be noted that not all of the laws formulated by him have necessary and sufficient signs of a logical connection. These are very important generalizations of practice, not without, however, subjective representations of the researcher on the essence and development of learning processes.
Perhaps one of the most striking examples in the history of pedagogy of examples of scientific error is the statement of the French scientist Sellerie about the discovery of pedagogical laws. In his book, Essays on Scientific Pedagogy. The facts and laws of pedagogy, "noted, incidentally, the gold medal of the French Academy of Moral and Political Sciences, he formulates two basic laws.
1. Every action is due to the nature of the student.
2. Every training should be considered not only with adaptation to the environment in a general sense, but as far as possible and with adaptation to a special environment.
Here, Seller repeats a common mistake: he does not distinguish between the concepts of law and principle, law and practical position. In this regard, the laws it formulated are not only provisions of varying degrees of community, but also heterogeneous concepts. In the first case, the concept of law establishes a certain, though not very definite, connection between the nature of the student and the reaction that follows in response to the pedagogical action, and in the second, no regular connection is revealed. The content of these laws does not reflect at all the factors on which upbringing depends.
A special place in the history of world and national pedagogy is the educational heritage of K.D. Ushinsky. Analyzing it, we do not cease to be surprised by those brilliant thoughts and generalizations that make up the content of the main works of the author. KD Ushinsky almost does not use the words regularity & quot ;, law & quot ;, modestly calling his numerous generalizations and conclusions rules and instructions. One of them: "The more factual knowledge has acquired reason and the better they are processed, the more developed and stronger". What is this, if not one of the most general laws of learning? You can not ascribe to the author what he did not say himself, without risking falling into absurdity or barbarism, but one can safely assert that the basic general laws of didactics were reflected in the works of KD Ushinsky.
Experimental pedagogy of the late XIX and early XX century. All her hopes were laid on experiment, measurement and statistics, believing that by these methods of the natural sciences she will be able to discover the laws of the pedagogical process. Fairly criticizing the methodological positions of the experimentalists, it should be noted that it was at this time and these methods that some important specific psychological-didactic patterns were established.
In 1885 the German scientist G. Ebiggauz built his "forgetting curve", suggesting that the proportion of material forgotten over time increases as a logarithm of the time elapsed since the beginning of the training. Since then, the most common way of describing the results of experiments on teaching in didactics and psychology is a graph that shows how, under the conditions of a given experiment, one variable changes with respect to another (another).
Attempts to formulate the laws of learning are also found in Dewey, Thorndike, Meiman, Kilpatrick.
E. Neumann formulated three laws.
1. The development of the individual from the very beginning is determined in the predominant degree by natural makings.
2. In the past, the functions that are most important for life and the fulfillment of the elementary needs of the child always develop.
3. Uneven mental and physical development of the child.
In addition to those named E. Meiman formulates two more laws on the factors of child development: the law of modification and the law of repetition. All these laws Meiman, depending on the context, calls principles and even rules.
Most of all in the former Soviet pedagogy was not lucky with the laws formulated by the major American educators Dewey and Thorndike. Despite the fact that the American (and not only American) school followed them and achieved great success, they gave a powerful impetus to the world didactic development, these laws were hushed up, distorted and denied. What are these laws?
Thorndike reads: "The general association law and the supplementary analogy law or assimilation indicates that the thoughts, feelings and actions of the child in each given case depend on how he thought, felt and acted in the past, and on what the warehouse and its direction mind in the present. His reactions to certain external stimuli will be exactly those whose results in the past have given him satisfaction. " In addition to these, Thorndike formulated the law of effect, conservation, readiness, repetition , etc.
The law of the effect: when the process of establishing a connection between the situation and the response is accompanied or replaced by a state of satisfaction, the strength of communication increases.
The law of conservation: if for some time the relationship between the situation and the answer, which has a volatile character, does not resume, the intensity of this connection weakens, and therefore, other things being equal, the probability the occurrence of a situation-related response is reduced.
These links, formulated as laws, reveal the deep mechanisms of fruitful learning activity, which makes them treat them with special attention.
Thorndike laws have brought up more than one generation of business, active, liberated Americans; these laws and today determine the technological structure of the educational process. They were subjected to numerous refinements. In 1940-1950-ies. Professor Lado has given Thorndike's laws an easier and more understandable form for practicing teachers, and this has further strengthened their guiding role. American teachers have firmly grasped the requirements of the five basic laws.
1. The law of interconnection: if two mental acts develop in a relationship, the repetition of one of them leads to the appearance or consolidation of the second.
2. The law of training: the higher the intensity of training, the better absorbed back reaction and the longer it is stored in memory.
3. The law of intensity: the more intense the training of the answer, the better it is absorbed and the longer it remains in memory.
4. The law of assimilation: Each new stimulus has the ability to induce a reaction that in the past has been associated with this same stimulus.
5. The law of effectiveness: the reaction, accompanied by pleasant consequences, is fixed; If it is accompanied by unpleasant consequences, they try to drown it or avoid it.
The effect of these general laws is concretized by isolating numerous particular (pairwise) constraints.
Attempts to establish a regular relationship, or at least start it, are found in all major theorists of pedagogy. For example, the well-known teacher S.T. Shatsky has deduced such regularity: students in the process of work spend their energy, but that's the essence of the doctrine that the more they spend their energy, the more they get. He also came close to formulating a scientific pattern about the unity of the intellect and the feelings of students in the learning process. The mind and feelings of the students must be in harmony, the intellectual and emotional spheres should help each other.
From the attempts of a mathematical study of the laws of learning undertaken in the 1940s-1950s, we will single out the works of A.Tarston and K.Hall. They introduced into the theory the next "training functions", the parameters of which were given a psychological-didactic meaning.
The most influential champion of formal learning theories was K. Hull. In his main work, "Principles of Conduct he put forward a system of postulates that emanate from the facts accumulated in the experiments. A significant part of them, despite the strict mathematical form, was a simple generalization of experience. In domestic psychological and didactic studies, the theory of K. Hull was repeatedly criticized for their behaviourist content. In the works of K. Hall, the learning process is considered in its simplest forms, but the variables are allocated and fixed very strictly. This made it possible to establish a number of links between various parameters of education that meet all the requirements of scientific law.
In the Soviet didactics until the 1970s. avoided using the concept of "law", and the concept "regularity", interpreted as a particular manifestation of the law, was used only when considering the most common problems of learning.
Studies of recent decades differ little from the general picture of the study of patterns in the past. Some scholars, still wondering whether pedagogy established patterns and laws, come to a negative conclusion and still do not recognize the pedagogy of strict science -
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