Organization of children's life on non-violent basis
In order to create the prerequisites for the emergence of a non-violence position, it is necessary to create an appropriate social pedagogical environment and to organize in a special way the very life activity of children. This requires teachers and parents, the entire environment of preschool children to have certain efforts with a clear understanding of the tasks of pedagogical activity.
By organizing the life of children on a non-violent basis, we mean the following:
- the use of a variety of ways to attract children's attention and ways of organizing their activities, creating a positive motivational basis;
- rational use of assessing preschoolers;
- providing conditions for children to make free choice;
- the use of life, educational, game situations to solve problems on the formation of the ability to non-violent interaction;
- the saturation of activities with appropriate social content;
- the organization of paired and group interaction.
Let's describe these directions of work in more detail.
1. Non-violent ways to attract children's attention. Practice shows that the arsenal of methods and techniques that the teacher uses to organize their attention is fairly monotonous. The basis is dominated by disciplining effects on organizational, attention is attracted by either voice or attributes of the upcoming activity.
Actually, there are a lot of ways to attract people. We propose the following system of such methods and techniques:
a) attract attention by using all the sensory channels with the appropriate beat:
- visual - the introduction of a toy, a living object, a model, an unusual object, etc .;
- auditory - music, bell, recorded animal cry, voice, ringing, clicks, etc .;
- tactile - the educator gives the children a touch of an object with the subsequent beating, the determination to touch the object hidden from preschoolers, etc.
- olfactory - using the smells of different objects and objects, flowers, spirits, etc .;b) attracting the attention of children through the use of the speech capabilities of the teacher: changing the loudness of the voice, telling the tutor poems when the children do not expect it, guessing the riddle, using the song (the teacher sang); c) the creation of an unusual situation, an unusual environment: a strangely dressed teacher, a darkened room with candles, the inclusion of the voice of the tutor, the invitation of children from another group, the invitation of an adult and a child who are dressed by some characters, etc.
d) attracting attention through the unusual behavior of the educator: the teacher, not paying attention to the children, gets out a large beautiful book and begins to consider it; the teacher sits on the mat and starts playing with a new beautiful toy; the educator starts drawing, sculpting with enthusiasm; the educator keeps his hand in his pocket and, when the other children make a noise, calls one child and tells him to tell others that the tutor has a surprise in his pocket, who wants to know, let him come up; loud emotional discussion with the assistant educator of what is being done outside the window, etc.
This list can be continued. Techniques to attract attention, many, almost every day, you can easily find new ones without much effort and time. It is important to remember that attracting attention should be accompanied by an appropriate organization of activities with the creation of an adequate motivational basis. It is easiest at preschool age to do this through the game or its elements.
The most common technique is authentication.
For example, children should draw a butterfly or make an applique. The teacher brings in a beautiful butterfly picture, thereby attracting attention, tells the children that they will be butterflies flying in a meadow (room) today. Preschoolers fly The room is like butterflies. Then the teacher asks them to sit on a flower (in their place), close their wings and informs them that they will paint themselves to find out how butterflies distinguish different flowers. After that, children choose from a number of images, what butterflies they will be. The teacher shows and tells how to draw better. Ends with the fact that the children "come up" with their butterflies to images or models of different colors and trying to determine how this or that flower is called, how it smells.
In general, it should be noted that any organization of activities can be accompanied by a corresponding motivation: game, cognitive, competitive, moral, etc. The points highlighted here: attracting attention, organizing activities in non-violent ways, updating the motivation - all this facilitates the adoption by preschoolers of the goals of the educator, the connection to his tasks, which, if observed, will be perceived not as imposed but as appropriate to their own aspirations at the moment. All this suggests that in the process of preparation, the educator should not only comprehend his own pedagogical goals and objectives, but also the ways of non-violent inclusion of children in this or that activity.
2. Rational use of assessing preschoolers. It is known that for any person it is important to evaluate his activities. This is all the more important for young children, who clearly need a positive emotional attitude towards them, especially from adults. Therefore, the evaluation activity of adults, teachers, and then peers plays a significant role in the formation of the individual. On the basis of this appraisal activity, as far as assessments correspond to the real level of development of the child, his individuality, his further development and emotional well-being will depend.
We can distinguish the following types of assessments that the teacher gives to children:
- by the nature of the relationship, the evaluation can be positive and negative;
- the character of the reward: material and moral;
- the components of the activity: the child's ideas, the process of activity, its results can be evaluated;
- the structural components of the personality: the skills, individual traits and personality traits, the personality as a whole, can be assessed;
- a time parameter: a retrospective, perspective and evaluation of the present;
- subjectivity of evaluation: can be carried out by adults, other children, by the child himself (self-esteem);
- positional: the educator gives an assessment on his behalf, on behalf of the child himself, on behalf of other people;
- evaluation form: verbal and non-verbal.
In order to fulfill its functions in the mode of forming the ability of preschool children to engage in non-violent interaction, the evaluation activity must meet the following requirements:
- priority of positive evaluation over negative; this does not mean that it is not possible to negatively assess the child, however, giving a negative evaluation, the teacher should always supplement it with a prospective positive assessment;
- expansion of the evaluation spectrum due to: the justification of praise or blame; wide use of comparisons; the variation in positional estimation; Variation of assessment by components of activity and components of personality;
- the extensive use of symbols in the evaluation process, especially when it is necessary to react to the negative actions of children, we recommend for this purpose to use images of little people from sticks in various positions of domination, submission, equality;
- maximum consideration of individual characteristics of children, for example, the sensitivity of the child to certain estimates, positive reactions to certain words - irritants;
- the gradual and consistent connection of preschool children to appraisal activity, the development of self-esteem.
3. Providing conditions for children to exercise their free choice. The notion of subjective freedom is one of the central to the psychology and pedagogy of nonviolence. The formation of the position of nonviolence at all age stages of ontogeny presupposes the creation of conditions for the children to exercise free choice. At the preschool age, such opportunities are substantially limited, the very desires of children are spontaneous and situational, while at the same time they have a pronounced ability to express themselves, self-assertion, manifest themselves. Therefore, it is very important for adults to create a situation of success and support these aspirations. All this is feasible if adults create conditions for children to exercise their free choice. Carrying out such a choice, the child learns to impose on himself the true responsibility. Let's show how this can be done with the example of conducting structured studies with preschoolers:
- the first level. Rigidly structured occupation, where the educator guides the children to the task in a strictly outlined form. There are practically no conditions for the implementation of free choice, the subjective freedom of children manifests itself only in relation to what they do: like or dislike, with desire or without desire they fulfill the task;
- the second level. The first option - the educator positively organizes the children, creates the necessary motivational basis, then the lesson is carried out according to the algorithm, but the children, interested, perceive the activity as freely chosen. The second option is that the teacher organizes the occupation traditionally, but in his turn creates conditions for choosing: ways of performing, selecting materials, shape, color, etc.
- the third level. Here, the first and second variants of the previous level are combined, i.e. the educator draws the children's attention, creates a positive motivational basis and provides opportunities for the free choice of ways of activities, materials, means, etc .;
- the fourth level. It is characterized by the fact that children themselves only with the help of a teacher create and determine alternatives for the upcoming choice;
- the fifth level. It is characterized by the fact that children are given the opportunity to choose the very objectives of the activity;
- the sixth level. Characterized by the fact that preschoolers are given the opportunity to choose both the form of employment, and its content, goals, ways and methods of activity.
4. Using life , learning, game and other situations. We also attach great importance to this position in the process of shaping the ability of non-violent interaction among preschool children. Children, interacting with each other, are far from always able to resolve emerging conflicts and their problems by peaceful means. At preschool age, one can meet with the manifestation of aggressiveness, hostility and, as a consequence, resentment, vengefulness, the desire to assert my "I" by force. In the process of resolving children's conflicts and preventing conflict, the role of the educator is important, which, firstly, should not disregard any case, and secondly, he must learn to react to such situations not reactively but actively. An active way of responding is that the educator guides his actions:
a) not on the fact of misconduct or conflict, but on his motives;
b) in the process of resolving a conflict situation, actualizes the relevant emotional experiences of children;c) makes extensive use of direct and indirect forms that lead to the child's comprehension and experience of improper actions, stimulating the search for nonviolent ways of interaction and emerging from conflict situations;
d) does not punish the offender, but "directs him to his conscience." Situations that need an active response from the caregiver arise daily. In our experimental work, teachers practice the following forms of using emerging situations, especially those that are of a conflict nature.
1. Discussion of the situation with children, followed by actualization of emotional feelings of all parties involved in the conflict.
For example, in one of the groups, two girls in revenge to their girlfriend buried her favorite doll in the snow. Katya already noticed a loss on her walk, was upset, told about the loss to the tutor. Organized a search that did not give anything. And only after a quiet hour the girls confessed to the tutor that they had buried the doll and indicated the place. The doll was removed from the snow, after which a conversation with the children took place. With a reactive response, the educator would scold girls, maybe complain to parents. With an active form, the educator first of all paid attention to the very suffering person "quot; in this story, i.е. on a doll that froze in the snow for several hours, then attention was drawn to the sufferings and experiences of the "mothers", i.e. Katie's girls. Only after that it was said that the doll, probably, someone buried in the snow, wanting to just joke, and he who buried, also experiences and repents of the deed. Then the doll was decided to "warm", wash and dry her clothes. These instructions were given to "Mom" and the girls who buried the doll.
2. Modeling a particular situation:
1) direct (direct), when after a while the same participants in a conflict dialogue, at the request of the teacher, reproduce their poses. For example, one boy swings at another, one girl drives the other; children at first reproduce their poses, while they are asked to share their emotional experiences and thoughts, then they change places, after which it is discussed which positions are preferable, which of them give a sense of strength and weakness; attention is drawn to the emotions of the parties (with the change of positions);
2) mediated, that is, the reconstruction of the situation by: using positional schematic people (from sticks):
a) aggressively dominant and subordinate positions; 6) aggressively dominant and aggressively dominant poses; c) aggressively dominant and independent poses; d) both postures of independence; e) independent and subordinate; e) both postures are subordinate.
- the use of dolls. Children lose their own conflict, using dolls, the problem is that preschoolers first reproduce the conflict, and then find a way to reconcile; various improvisational maneuvers are possible;
- the use of various substitute subjects, to which human qualities are attributed; for example, two cars were arguing or quarreling the way the children did in the hands of these machines at the moment;
- the use of the game, the content of which is introduced the situation observed by the teacher; this form is good not only for modeling conflict situations, but also for conflict communication in general, in particular, communication between an adult and a child.
Mom of one of the girls addressed the educator. The problem was that the child dressed very slowly, which irritates her very much. The educator solves the problem in the following way: he organizes the game in his mother's daughters, and the role of the daughter is taken up by the teacher. One of the episodes is dressing and preparing for a kindergarten. The teacher behaves the way a girl usually behaves in the morning, the last "tired" with the child (educator), up to the point that she no longer wanted to play the role of mother. This led to the fact that the next morning, real problems with dressing the real mother was not;
3) incidental use of emerging situations: for solving problems posed by the teacher;
- in order to prevent escalation of a relatively neutral situation into a conflict situation;
- for the purpose of joining the teacher to the child's situational goals and then translating them into the mainstream of the general tasks assigned to the group;
- to use the situation as an illustration of what children are doing at the moment;
- to create the prerequisites for the implementation of free choice, in particular the choice of non-violent action.
Here's an example.
... The teacher, among other tasks set the goal to form boys in the preparatory group respectful of the girls. Once before the session, she asked the children to gather in the playroom and sit on the chairs. There were not enough chairs for all the children (some of them were taken to the assembly hall for an event). The boys sat down, ousting the girls, many of whom remained standing. None of the boys lost their place. When the teacher turned away to take visual material, Seryozha stood up and walked over to the picture that was interesting for him, prepared for classes. At this time, Natasha took his place. Turning around and seeing that his chair was busy, Seryozha turned pale and was ready to fight for his place. (Natasha "would have remained only feathers".) However, the teacher did not lose her head, she immediately drew attention to this fact: "Look, children, how many times I said that boys should give way to girls, only one Seryozha decided to do it ! The effect was amazing. Seryozha smiled, he was pleased that he was praised. And other boys began to give their places to girls ...
5. Saturation of children's activities by non-violent content.
Practically in any kind of activity of children it is possible to single out its meaningful moments connected with coercion and violence. A special role here belongs to all kinds of activities related to art, literature, music, etc.
It should be noted that literature, art, cinema, etc. saturated and oversaturated with violence. In many works, movies good, as a rule, wins evil, but it is done through the same evil. Hence, as a matter of urgency, it is necessary to recognize the task connected with the formation of a correct attitude to literature, cinema, and art. We can not abolish or ban movies with violence scenes, literature with relevant content, but it is possible to form a child's notion of this not as a life, but as a movie where no one really suffers, does not die. It is important for a child, adolescent, adult person to develop an attitude to the impossibility of transferring what they see, read into real life.
In the preschool age, this work should begin with the analysis of a fairy tale, a cartoon, pictures, etc. The fact is that many fairy tales are more violent than modern militants. For example, Babu Yaga is burned in a stove, a fox in a fairy tale Rooster and a dog tears the dog, in the tale "Ivan Tsarevich and the Gray Wolf" The wolf tears to the shreds of brothers and disperses them across the field, in a fairy tale "Come there, I do not know where, bring that, I do not know what" the tsar dies from the cudgel Andrew-shooter. In all cases, the death of negative heroes is justified, but good is done through the same violence. Therefore, the central task is to read the fairy tale differently, inventing the other end. Children are led to the idea of compromise, a search for a peaceful outcome, especially in cases where negative characters are already punished, realized their wrong or guilt. How to make the hare make friends with the fox and voluntarily share housing? How to make Baba-yaga become kinder and not cause harm to people? Our experience shows that many preschool children with a desire are included in such tasks and are able to find positive ways out of complex and intricate fairy-tale situations. In a similar vein, work can be done on pictures, cartoons, poems, etc.
Great opportunities for solving this problem contains the creativity of children. Drawing, sculpting, applique allows you to reproduce stories from fairy tales, movies, from life with both violent and non-violent content. At the same time, it is important to form an appropriate attitude among preschool children, to direct their creativity to a peaceful resolution of collisions.
Of particular importance are musical studies. Music contributes to the emergence of various, right up to polar emotions, feeling themselves in different positions. A good effect is provided by musical exercises combined with rhythmoplastic movements united around the plot with non-violent content: sympathy, sympathy, empathy for music accompanied by stylized movements associated with rendering assistance - they are fixed in the form of positive attitudes, stimulate the process of transferring these attitudes to the real reality.
6. Organization of paired and group interaction.
One of the most important tasks of the pedagogy of nonviolence is the task related to the formation of the ability to stand on the position of another person, the ability to sympathize, empathize, promote. Solve this problem only if the educator constantly focuses pre-schoolers on each other, and does not work with the group frontally as a whole, or individually. Here, first, it is important to correctly combine children, given the type of their activity, as well as the influence they will exert on each other. Our studies and the experience of the organization of preschool children have shown that contact-friendly children can be combined with all other types. Contact-hostile can not be combined with each other and non-contact-hostile, and non-contact-hostile, moreover, it is inappropriate to unite with each other. If, however, the educator decides to unite in a single group of socially and non-socially hostile preschoolers, it must necessarily be "strengthened" two or three sociable and friendly children. Secondly, it is necessary to distribute assignments in such a way that one of the children fulfills the functions of the leader, the other (other) subordinate (positive submission, positive dominance). Third, to target children to provide mutual assistance, while actualizing the emotional states of partners. Properly organizing the interaction of preschool children, creating the prerequisites for joint activities, helping each other, drawing children to the inner world of partners, can create a good basis for the emergence and development of non-violence.
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