PECULIARITIES OF EARLY-EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT
At an early age there is an intensive physical development of children, the formation of functional systems of the child's body. The child's height and weight increase, the proportions of his internal organs change: the chest grows, the lungs develop, the heart develops, the heart becomes stronger, and the diaphragm becomes stronger. Improved work of the respiratory system (increases its volume), digestive organs (they acquire the ability to digest a wide variety of foods). The immune system is strengthened, while maintaining the high vulnerability of the child's body in relation to various diseases, resistance to infections, unfavorable environmental conditions, gradually grows.
During the second - third years of life, in connection with the intensive development of active movements, the skeleton and musculature of babies develop. In the second year of the child's life, the proportions of his body vary considerably: the length of arms and legs increases, the volume of the breast becomes larger than the volume of the head.
By the age of 3, a more or less characteristic configuration of the spine appears, although the constancy of cervical and lumbar curvature is established later. The spine is very flexible, so adverse effects can lead to incorrect posture. Along with the development of the osseous system, the muscular system develops: the volume of muscles increases and the amount of adipose tissue in them decreases, their innervation and blood supply improve. By the end of the early age sexual differences in the development of the muscular system are becoming perceptible - the boys are characterized by greater muscle strength, their greater volume.
By the age of 2, the eruption of all 20 milk teeth is completed. By this age, children begin to control the act of defecation, and sometimes urination, which makes it possible for the child to develop skills of neatness.
Nervous processes in the body of a young child are characterized by weakness and lack of mobility. The low endurance of the nerve cells of the cerebral cortex, especially in the second year of the baby's life, leads to its rapid fatigue. At the same time, by the age of one and a half years, children become sufficiently hardy, wakeful periods reach 4-4.5 hours, many pass to one-time sleep. By the age of 2, the working capacity of the nervous system rises, the periods of wakefulness increase to 5 hours.
In the third year of life, the child's nervous system becomes more enduring, but due to the increased excitability of subcortical structures, imperfection and weakness of the regulatory function of the cerebral cortex, the behavior of a young child is markedly emotional. By the end of the early age, the activity of the central nervous system becomes more perfect, its regulatory function is strengthened: the child is already able to restrain himself and not to cry, if it hurts him, to concentrate more actively and purposefully on an interesting job, to subordinate his behavior to certain rules.
In the third year of life, long-term memory begins to function, the second signal system is actively developing: the child's vocabulary expands, he understands the speech of an adult better. In children who begin to speak in the second year of life, by the end of the early age, fluency in speech reaches a degree of automatism. As shown by special studies, the development of speech is closely related to the development of the motor analyzer: children who are fluent in speech are more active, more easily included in games, clearly associate the word with the movement. Great importance for improving the speech center and articulatory apparatus has the development of fine motor: movements of hands and fingers that have a direct stimulating effect on the motor analyzer.
Development of movements at an early age. At the end of the first - the beginning of the second year of life, the child becomes independent walking. In the first months of the second year of life, the child's desire for constant movement is combined with insufficient coordination of movements: he is not sure, often falls, hardly overcomes the slightest obstacle. While mastering walking, the child moves at a fast pace, since at the same time it is easier for him to keep his balance. The baby's first steps are short and uneven. He still does not know how to stop, change direction, avoid obstacles, so he moves from subject to subject "short dashes". It is still difficult for him to make moves with his legs and hands at the same time, for example, in response to an adult's offer to dance, the baby first stomps his legs and then claps his hands.
Walking skills are improved quickly. By a year and a half the child is already able not only to walk, but also to squat, turn, retreat, step over a low obstacle. At this age, he can already purposefully, at the request of an adult, change the walking pattern: "walk like a bear", "jump like a bunny" and the like.
In the second-third year, the basic movements of the baby are improved: it begins to coordinate its motor activity more and more.
By the end of the second year the child can:
• go along the path drawn on the floor, or on a board 20-25 cm wide;
• step over an alternating step through an obstacle placed on the floor (rope, stick), or raised by 5-10 cm;
• To climb and descend on an inclined board, elevated 10-15 cm from the floor;
• climb the low slides, get down from them;
• climb under the bench, rope, etc.;
• climb over the crossbar;
• go up and down the stairs, etc.
In the third year of life, walking is further improved. Children move freely, they can change the rhythm and direction of movement. By 3 years they can:
• run, changing speed, in one direction or in a circle;
• whirl around;
• Walk on all fours along the path;
• climb the stairs and descend along it;
• get on a chair, bench, get down from them;
• throwing and catching a ball thrown from a short distance;
• bounce on two legs in place and jump forward,
• jump from low objects (10-15 cm);
• jump over streams, grooves, etc.
As the child's walking becomes more and more automated, conditions are created for more complex activities involving a combination of walking and acting with objects. A child can, without fear of losing balance and fall, carry objects in their hands, drag them by the ribbon, carry a toy on their wand, a toy baby carriage, play with a ball (roll it, toss, roll, catch up), etc .; can stand on toes, bend over and look under the couch to get the toy by hand or with the help of a stick.
Impact of motor activity on the development of children. Properly organized motor activity of the child helps to strengthen his health; is one of the important conditions for correct metabolism, stimulates the development of the nervous and cardiovascular systems, musculoskeletal system, respiratory and digestive organs. The motor activity plays an important role in providing the child's full-fledged mental development, as it stimulates positive emotions, increases the overall vitality of the baby, gives food for various impressions and active cognitive activity.
Studies show that the level of motor activity in young children depends on a number of factors: the time of the year, the day, and also on the sex of the child and his individual characteristics. In summer, the need for movement increases, which is due to changes in metabolism. The need for movement also changes during the day: children are most active in the morning from 9 to 12 hours, and in the second - from 17 to 19 hours. Boys on average move more than girls. Some children are characterized by increased motor activity, in others it is moderate or weak. This may be due to both the child's temperament and the conditions of his life. For example, in families where the physical development of children is given due attention, they grow more mobile, dexterous and more enduring than where parents prefer to keep toddlers in an arena, restrict their activity during walks due to excessive desire to observe cleanliness and fear of injury .The development of actions with objects. Throughout the young age, the activities of children with objects related to household activities, with self-service skills, with gaming activities develop and improve.
Already at the end of the first year of life, children try to repeat some household activities , which are performed with them by adults: eat with a spoon, drink from a cup, use a comb, etc. In the first half of the second year of life, babies can already eat on their own, use a napkin, push down the stools at the end of the meal, wipe their hands and face after washing, use an adult to remove pantyhose, shoes, etc. For now, these actions are far from perfect: the baby can carry the spoon past his mouth or drop the food on the floor, drizzle with juice, comb camping with the back of a comb, wear pants on backwards, bad wipe his hands, etc. Similar shortcomings are associated with the child's insufficient awareness of this age of the meaning of the actions themselves, and with imperfection of movements, motor skills.
In the third year, children's self-care activities become more conscious and dexterous. Kids can independently and accurately eat, button up their buttons, help the adult place dishes on the table, wipe the table with a napkin, make a bed, etc.
Household activities contribute not only to the socialization of the child, the assimilation of the norms and rules accepted in society, but also to develop motor abilities, such as coordinating the movements of the hands and fingers.
The development of movements is the activities of children with different items that adults use, and toys. Children like flipping books, pushing and sliding drawers of cabinets, opening and closing pans, "writing" papa pen and the like. Games with didactic toys (pyramids, cubes, inserts), story toys, actions with the use of tools (a stick, a net for catching floating toys, scoops and scoops for playing with sand and snow), drawing classes, modeling also include the most a variety of movements that contribute to the development of fine motor skills.
The physical health of children is one of the foundations of its full-fledged development. A normally physically developing child, as a rule, is mobile, cheerful and inquisitive; is active in games, participates in the affairs of adults. The physical well-being of a young child in a preschool institution should be the subject of special attention of teachers.
At an early age there is an intensive physical development of children, the formation of functional systems of the child's body. During this period, the growth and weight of the child grows, the proportions of its internal organs are changed, the work of the respiratory system, digestive organs is improved, the immune system is strengthened, the skeleton and musculature develop.
By the end of the early age, the activity of the central nervous system becomes more perfect, its regulatory function is strengthened.
In the second-third year the basic movements of the baby are improved, it more and more coordinates its motor activity, takes various actions with objects, household skills.
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