As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:


• the concept of quality of education & quot ;;

• features of pedagogical control;

be able to

• Analyze the psychology of power based on the history of politics;


• The skills of analyzing a new knowledge structure.

The concept of quality of education

The question of the quality of education was especially acute in the era of the Enlightenment. The initial liberal-educational ideas about the inexhaustible possibilities of enlightenment were associated with the ideal of an independent intelligent person. The pathos of reason, knowledge and the progress based on them most fully expressed itself in the philosophy of the Enlightenment. Timeless, extra-historically understood, always identical to itself reasonableness as opposed to "misconceptions", "passions", "mysteries" was viewed by educators as a universal means of improving society. Progress was interpreted as the result of the spread of true education, imbued with the light of reason.

E. Cassirer writes: "Diderot is one of the most important representatives of the Enlightenment. As the publisher of the Encyclopedia, he was at the very center of all the major intellectual movements of his time. No one had such a clear view of the general development of scientific knowledge; no one else so acutely felt all the basic tendencies of the XVIII century & quot ;. All the more characteristic and noteworthy is that, in presenting all the ideals of the Enlightenment, Diderot began to doubt their absolute rightness. He expected a new form of education.

The problem of the quality of education has acquired special significance in the post-industrial society. Never before have there been such favorable opportunities for knowledge, such diverse sources of knowledge. Psychology, ethnography, anthropology, history have gathered an amazingly rich and constantly growing mass of facts. The technical tools for observation and experimentation have grown enormously, and our analysis is becoming more sophisticated and perceptive. Information that students receive is to be correlated with the level of modern knowledge. Those views that have already lost their relevance can not make up the content of education and determine its significance. We refer, for example, to Toffler, who writes: "The rapid spread of computers over the past decades has been called the single most important change in the knowledge system. The significance of the distribution of computers can only be compared with the invention of a printing press in the fifteenth century, or even the creation of a written language. Along with this extraordinary change, the equally striking spread of new networks and means of transferring knowledge and its predecessors - data and information. By the wealth of facts - this is not yet a wealth of thoughts. Without finding the ariadnea thread that leads us out of this labyrinth, we can not understand the common features of human culture, we will be lost in a mass of disconnected and disparate data, devoid of conceptual unity.

To. Manheim noted that specialization is needed in an age of highly developed differentiation. However, if no effort is made to coordinate the results of special studies and the various subjects included in the training program, there can only be one explanation for this: this integrity of the picture is undesirable. Speaking about the quality of education, Mannheim opposed timely opinion that important information is not important, which inform students, but polish the intellect. It does not matter what to teach, but the very fact of learning for brain training is important. "To this," wrote Mannheim, "I want to object the following: why not train the brains, studying the really necessary items?" An unconscious tendency towards a neutral approach to learning and a hidden desire for self-destruction lead to the deliberate avoidance of situations where it is necessary to study really important things and take a certain position. This is reminiscent of the refusal to carefully study the geography of his country for fear that the enemy can seize cards. The enemy will somehow find a way to study our geography. And such education and training, which tries to prevent us from mentally embracing this object as a whole and taking a certain position, inevitably brings up a person who is not capable of real resistance to different doctrines ... "

The quantitative growth of education throughout the world, of course, raised the question of its quality. In the "World Declaration on Higher Education for the Twenty-first Century" says: "At the threshold of the 21st century, we are witnessing an unprecedented demand for higher education and its wide diversification, along with an increasing awareness of its decisive importance for socio-cultural and economic development ... from 1960 to 1995, the number of students in all countries of the world increased from 13 ml to 82 million ... At the same time, the gap between the industrialized and developing countries ... with regard to access to higher education and research, and also in the ratio Resources Research Institute, devoted to their .

We remember the concern expressed by Scheler, Jaspers, Manheim in connection with the massification of education. NA Berdyaev anxiously wrote about the entry into the culture of huge human masses. "Humanistic culture," he wrote, "is fragile, and it can not withstand the large mass processes that overturn it."

Education is one of the decisive factors that determine the social efficiency of society, its renewal, progress. However, many social critics timely raised the question that education can become a kind of a technical mechanism. The human spirit will be reduced to the ability to learn and realize useful functions. People will turn into an anonymous mass.

It is quite obvious at the same time that it is education that must teach a person to think, do, live. Live creatively, with dignity and morality. Live, enriching yourself with the achievements of civilization, creating high spiritual values. J. Delors, Chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century, in his report presented by UNESCO, reproduced an excerpt from Lafontaine's fable, "Plowman and His Children": "Save you God (the plowman said) to sell your inheritance left to you by your own parents, because in them the treasure is hidden. " J. Delor emphasized that education encompasses everything that humanity has learned about itself. To paraphrase a poet who gave praise to labor, one could say: "But the father was wise, telling them before death, that education is a treasure."

Naturally, the problem of changing the structure, forms, methods, content of education is extremely difficult. It requires consideration and solution of many fundamentally new issues, including the search for ways to harmonize the volume of knowledge necessary for a modern, growing person, and to develop the ability not only to appropriate them, but also to creativity toward them, with participation in their further development. Before us, in fact, a whole range of problems, to the solution of which we could not even begin. In connection with this, it is now very important to determine the possible alignment of all forces involved in the educational space, to ensure the purposefulness of their actions.

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