Pedagogical ideal and its concrete historical embodiment
In each era, their ideas of a pedagogical ideal were born. The first steps in understanding the essence of education were made in the East. A study of the views of ancient thinkers shows that they not only gave the world a philosophy, but also predetermined the direction of the development of the modern educational system. The main educational subject was discovered by Socrates, who, attaching great importance to the education and enlightenment of Athenian citizens, tried to raise the general level of people's spirituality, "reduce" philosophy, in the words of Cicero, from heaven to earth, and "earth"; lift to the skies.
The Greek system of education and education was guided by the all-round development of the individual. According to Plutarch, the sociocultural value of education was so great that city policies did not interrupt the training of the younger generation even during wars. Central and final was the philosophical education, the center of which was the upbringing of a complete personality.
Another pedagogical ideal was realized in Europe in connection with the emergence, spread and evolution of Christianity. Since VI century, when the Emperor Justinian has forbidden to teach all non-Christians, a new model of education is born. Henceforth, philosophy becomes "not a servant of wisdom", and "a servant of theology". In the Middle Ages, they believe not in wisdom, but in authority. The situation is radically transformed in the Renaissance, when the ideal of the "human person" is proclaimed, secular culture and a new understanding of humanism are being formed.
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French philosophers stressed the fundamental importance of moral education (B. Pascal), noted that without systematic education, even the "best organized mind is deprived of all its value" (J. Lametry), raised the question of the social importance of legal education and upbringing (J. Montesquieu), drew attention to the fact that the educator should try to discover the "natural propensities of the child" (D. Diderot) and answered in the writings of J.-J. Rousseau is the value of educating an integral person.
The problem of taxonomy of educational purposes
Taxonomy - theory of classification and systematization of complex domains of reality. The pedagogical process is a complex and versatile phenomenon. It requires the utmost orderliness, planning and consistency in the realization of the goals set. Each society has its own specific attitude towards the past, the present and the future, which prevents the correct perception of time. In stagnant societies the past gradually flows into the present and repeats itself in the future. The most reasonable way to prepare a child in such societies is to equip him with the skills and skills of the past, because they will need him in the future. "In the elders is wisdom," the Bible insists.
The father gave his son along with all sorts of practical skills and a clearly formulated, extremely traditional system of values. Knowledge was transferred not by specialists working in schools, but acquired in the family, religious organizations and in the process of training the craft. Pupils and teachers were dispersed throughout the community. The basis of this system is selfless devotion to today's day. The past was a learned course for teaching the past.
The technical age from all this did not leave a stone unturned, because the developing industry needed a new type of person, it required such skills and skills that neither the family itself nor the church could provide. The industry accelerated the coup in the value system. Moreover, she demanded from the person a new sense of time. Public education was the mechanism that industrialization created to prepare the adult population that is necessary for their needs.
That historical battle that led Dewey and his followers for the introduction of the "progressive" measures in American education was a desperate attempt to find an alternative to the subjective paradigm of time. J. Dewey fought against the traditional education system, turned to the past, trying to reorient him to the tasks of the present. Despite this, decades later, traditionalists like J. Maritain still angrily attacked anyone who tried to tip the scales in favor of the present.
To create a super-industrial education, it is important first of all to develop a successful alternative vision of the future: to imagine what kinds of jobs, professions and inclinations will be needed in the future, in 20-50 years, what forms the family will acquire and what kind of human relations will prevail, what the problems of the moral and ethical plan may arise, which technique will surround us, with what organizational structures will have to work.
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The idea of continuing education
Modern society is in a state of differentiation. Children will be allowed a much greater choice than at present, they will be encouraged to get acquainted with a large number of different short-term courses (possibly two or three weeks) before they decide to begin long-term studies. Each school will offer about 20 optional subjects, which will necessarily be based on identified assumptions about future needs.
The thematic range is also quite wide. In addition to studying known (ie, very possible) elements of the super-industrial future, there will be topics designed for interest in the unknown, unexpected, probable. You can do this with the help of the "probabilistic curriculum" - training programs designed to prepare people to operate with problems that have not yet arisen, but perhaps never are realized. It may be necessary for specialists to work in conditions of potential, albeit unlikely, emergencies: contamination of land brought from other planets or stars, contacts with extraterrestrial life, and monstrous generations of genetic experiments.
With the onset of further acceleration of development, we can conclude that knowledge is becoming more perishable product. Today's fact turns tomorrow into "disinformation". This is not at all an argument against the study of facts or the sum of knowledge. In the schools of the future, not only the amount of knowledge should be taught, but also the ability to operate it. Schoolchildren should learn how to abandon obsolete ideas, as well as when and how to replace them. In a word, they must learn to learn. A new powerful aspect of education can be the instruction of students about how to learn how to unlearn and how to retrain.
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