Pedagogical interaction. Models of pedagogical interaction...

4.1. Pedagogical interaction. Models of pedagogical interaction

Any pedagogical system can be considered as a form of interaction of the people participating in it: educators and children, teachers and schoolchildren, teachers and students.

By interaction is usually understood the process of the impact of objects or subjects on each other, which generates their mutual conditioning and communication.

In various psychological schools and directions, social interaction is viewed from different theoretical positions. So, in the theory of neobievirism, the interaction is analyzed from the point of view of the "outcomes" - rewards and losses of each participant. It is noted that the interaction will be renewed only in cases where the reward exceeds the loss. In the cognitive orientation, attention is focused not so much on the process of interaction as on the formation of certain cognitive (cognitive) structures of its participants. Within the framework of symbolic interactionism, on the contrary, the main emphasis is on the process of interaction itself.

The theory of transactional analysis deserves special attention from the point of view of the problem under consideration, the founder of which is E. Berne [3]. The central place in his conception is occupied by the positions that a person can take in relation to another person. These are the positions: Parent - states similar to the state of "I" the parent; Adult - states "I", aimed at an objective assessment of reality; Child - states "I", reminiscent of the experiences and behavior of a small child. Interacting with each other, people occupy one of these positions.

The conversion of one person to another is called a transactional stimulus, and the answer is a transactional reaction. Communication is seen as an exchange of transactions, with each of the communicants occupying one of the previously mentioned positions. E. Berne identifies three main forms of social activity, within which interaction is carried out: procedures, pastime, games. The basic idea is that all the difficulties of communication lie in the inability of people to be sincere and direct in their relationships with each other. Instead, they play numerous games. Thus, E. Berne uniqueness of interaction, its qualitative features connects with the positions of communication partners.

Let us now turn to the problem of pedagogical interaction proper. Despite the apparent simplicity, it is quite difficult to define the essence of this concept. In the special psycho-pedagogical literature, attention is usually drawn not so much to interaction as to the ways teachers influence the child, as a result of which changes occur in the personality of the latter in the form of acquired knowledge, skills, skills, personal qualities, etc. At the same time, pre-school children, school students, students also have an active influence on the teacher interacting with them, which can be traced in the following areas:

- changes in the personality and behavior of the teacher as a result of taking into account the age and individual characteristics of the children;

- the restructuring of the individual as a result of acquiring pedagogical experience, mastering the skill;

- changes and rearrangements of forms, methods of influencing pupils on the basis of performance analysis, activity correction;

- immediate personal changes as a result of in-depth self-knowledge and self-improvement.

This approach fully corresponds to the thought of LS Vygotsky, who, as far back as 1926, emphasized the activity of all aspects of pedagogical interaction: "... the pupil is active, the teacher is active, the active environment is between them" [5, p. 89].

So, we believe that pedagogical interaction, in broad terms, can be defined as the mutual impact of teachers and children on each other, as a result of which the process of their personal growth and change is carried out.

In the process of pedagogical interaction, the following acts are carried out:

- communication in its three constituent aspects: communicative, perceptual and interactive;

- building relationships that are manifested in the cognitive, affective and behavioral aspects;

- education and upbringing, affecting changes in all spheres of the personality.

It should be noted that not every interaction leads to personal changes: first, it must be implemented for a long time or be sufficiently intense; secondly, changes can occur only at the level of one of the subjects of interaction; thirdly, under adverse conditions, such changes may also have a negative character.

Let's turn now to the specifics of the interaction of teachers and children.

First, in the process of pedagogical interaction, the subject of activity can be either a teacher or a student, or both.

Secondly, in the process of pedagogical interaction between a teacher and a student, a contradiction arises that the teacher's goals and tasks do not coincide, and the plans that the student has. For example, the teacher's task is to present as much as possible new material in the lesson, and for the student at the moment the information from the neighbor on the desk about his intentions for the afternoon is more important. Very well the essence of this contradiction was expressed by Sh. A. Amonashvili: "The goals of education are set by society, and the educator, striving for their implementation, caring about the future of his pupils, often rejects their present interests. The educator has the best intentions towards the child: to bring him closer to his future, to bring up a better, new person in him. However, the child lives today, all his actual needs arise on the basis of the present. What he wants now requires instant gratification. He is a prisoner of his immediate desires and needs. Naturally, they often do not coincide with the objectively necessary requirements of the educator. The task of the educator is to, in accordance with the planned program, steadily lead the children to their future. However, this child perceives this activity as alien to his interests, as an infringement on his rights, interference in his life and passes to self-defense, counteraction. This situation DN Uznadze called the main tragedy of education [1].

There are two ways to resolve this contradiction: either coercion or cooperation. In the first case, the teacher in a hard or softer form forces the student to be obedient, to precisely fulfill all his requirements. It should be noted that the coercing party may be the child himself, who insists on fulfilling his desires and whims, not wanting to reckon with an adult. In the second case, both adults and children try to find common goals, are involved in the process of joint activity, join their efforts to jointly solve problems.

Third, in the process of pedagogical interaction, different styles of leadership of children's activities on the part of the teacher are possible. As is known in psychology and pedagogy, there are three main styles of leadership: authoritarian, democratic and liberal (conniving). For the authoritarian style of leadership, the requirements, order, and regulation of activities are characteristic, while the motives, needs of the other interacting party (in this case students) are not taken into account. Democratic leadership style involves involvement in the process of management (interaction) of all participants, collegial decision-making, coherence of actions. The liberal style of leadership, or, as it is called, conniving, is characterized by the fact that the manager, in this case an adult, is in the wake of a child or a group of children, following their spontaneous actions and desires.

Fourth, in the process of pedagogical interaction, the qualities that are valued in the child are singled out, which include either properties related to student activity, which is characteristic of personality-oriented learning, or properties related to the spontaneous, momentary uncontrolled activity of the child. The latter is typical for the permissive model, or properties related to performance correspond to traditional learning.

Fifth, another important characteristic is the characterization of the value of the activities of the interacting parties. It is a question of the fact that in different pedagogical systems the activity of teachers and the activity of students acquires a different significance. So, in the traditional system of teaching much attention is paid to the activities of the teacher, the methodology and technology of teaching and upbringing, methodological recommendations are written for him, working algorithms are worked out, only textbooks and teaching aids are created for students. Initially, it is assumed that the active component of education is a teacher who by definition must lead, determine the logic of the child's teaching. In other systems, on the contrary, the priority is given to the child's spontaneous activity, this position is characteristic of the theories of free education. For example, according to KN Ventzel, each child must write the textbook himself, according to M. Montessori, the educator should not impose any activity on the child at all, but must follow his natural aspirations.

On the basis of the selected features, three most typical interaction models can be distinguished: educational-disciplinary, personality-oriented and liberal-condoning. If you try to give brief characteristics to the named models using the listed characteristics, then it can be represented as follows (Table 5).

Table 5

◘Characteristics of models of pedagogical interaction

Symptoms

Educational Discipline Model

A personal-oriented model

Liberal-tolerant model

Business entity

Teacher

Teacher and child

Child

The way to resolve the contradiction

Compulsion (by the teacher)

Cooperation

Compulsion (from the side of the child)

Management style

Authoritarian

Democratic

Liberal

Qualities that are valued in a child

Performance

Initiative + performance

Spontaneous activity

Activity Priority

Training

Learning + Learning

Doctrine

Let's characterize these models in more detail.

The educational-disciplinary model of pedagogical interaction is typical for traditional pedagogy and the practice of education. As a subject of activity, only the teacher is recognized. The student is assigned a passive role as an object of influence on the part of the teacher. The basic contradiction arising between the participants in the interaction is overcome by explicit or implicit coercion. The student, regardless of his own desires and interests, must learn what he is invited to learn certain norms and accepted patterns of behavior. Authoritarian style is predominant in the management of children's activities. The most valuable are considered only those qualities of students who constitute the block of performance: obedience, discipline, organization, normative behavior, the ability to accurately reproduce at the right time what is learned. In the educational process, the main emphasis is on the activities of teaching, rather than teaching. Therefore, more attention is paid to the development of tools, forms, methods of teaching and upbringing, usually without due regard for the individual and age characteristics of students

The personality-oriented model of pedagogical interaction is characteristic of pedagogy, built on the principles of recognizing the right of each party to be the subject of its own activity. Contradictions between the teacher and the student are resolved through cooperation, where each side of the interaction has a certain freedom in the choice of content, forms of activity, coordinating their claims and rights with the claims and rights of the partners for interaction. As a result, relations between them are based on a realistic basis of mutual acceptance and mutual understanding. Democratic leadership style becomes predominant. Students appreciate a set of qualities related to their activity: initiative, creativity, ability to take responsibility, bring the matter to the end, etc. Equal attention is given both to the activities of teaching, upbringing, and the activity of teaching. Teaching is based on the individuality of each child. Self-realization of the teacher's personality is a condition for self-realization of the learner's personality, and, conversely, successful personal growth of the pupil is an incentive for the development and improvement of the teacher's personality.

The liberal-tolerant model of pedagogical interaction is characteristic of pedagogical systems built on the theories of free education, as well as for some private schools, where the teacher is practically denied the right to play a leading role in the educational process. He can not adequately respond to an insult in his address from the student, is forced to adapt to the desires of children, dependent on the requirements of the administration and the whims of the parents. In the domestic practice of education and upbringing, this model is most often reproduced in conditions of family upbringing. It is clear that the liberal-conniving model predetermines the child as the subject of interaction, the teacher is given a passive role: he must follow the child's desires, create conditions for his development. The main contradiction that arises between the teacher and the student is overcome by coercion, but in this case the student, rather than the teacher, compels. Thus, the student is given more freedom than the teacher. The liberal style of management becomes a priority, with the main emphasis being on the spontaneous activity of the child, through which the allegedly inherent potencies are manifested.

In modern practice of teaching and upbringing, there are more often disciplinary and personal-oriented models of pedagogical interaction. Therefore, in the further presentation, analyzing the personality-oriented model, we will more often compare it with the educational-disciplinary model, rather than with the liberal -predictive model.

In the domestic science, a detailed study of the educational-disciplinary model and the personality-oriented model began after the emergence of the concept of preschool education [9], where the team of authors, under the leadership of VA Petrovsky, identified the characteristics of a disciplinary and personality-oriented interaction model.

It should be noted that in the actual practice of education and upbringing, these models rarely exist in a pure form. In addition, in this or that interaction model one can find elements of others. For example, among teachers working within the framework of traditional pedagogy, there are many teachers with a democratic leadership style and a stable-positive type of relationship to children. At the same time, the orientation of teachers on this or that model of interaction can be seen quite clearly. It is another matter to single out the levels of this orientation: a pronounced orientation toward the personal model of interaction, moderate orientation, etc., depending on the completeness of the characteristics of a particular model that can be detected using special techniques, including standardized observation techniques .

From the context of the foregoing it is clear that the pedagogy of nonviolence in the process of studying the characteristics of non-violent interaction is based on the personality-oriented model, it creates the prerequisites for reducing or removing coercion in the course of communication, joint activities, in conflict situations.

Since there are different models, it is logical to assume that teachers, adults, parents can have some tendency to use this or that type of interaction in building relationships with children. This kind of propensity we call the type of orientation to a certain model of interaction.

In accordance with the topic of this manual, we are particularly interested in the orientation of teachers on the personal model of interaction with children, so we will dwell on this in more detail.

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