Pedagogical regularities - Pedagogy. Theoretical pedagogy

6.2. Pedagogical patterns

Develop, improve, accumulate new knowledge, improve life - the eternal task of man and humanity. Man achieves his goal by meditation and action. To think and act without mistakes man is not capable. Nothing ever comes at the first attempt. We have to do a lot of attempts (trials), from which in the end the best one is chosen. So there is a selection and accumulation of the right knowledge and actions based on them.

The path of trial and error is the most ancient, proven and reliable. It is not the fastest, most economical and easy, but intuitive to everyone, accessible, applicable everywhere and always leads to certain conclusions. Begin to act, and in the process of action, look and adjust. Try, try, look. Under the recumbent stone water does not flow.

Through the trial and error of accumulated vast knowledge. We have been developing for a long time as a mankind, we have tried many things, made many mistakes, but also gained some experience. The main thing now is not to lose, not to lose it, otherwise everything will have to start again. Lost, for example, the experience of manufacturing damask steel, the construction of buildings without a single nail or the strongest concrete. We switched to more simple technologies. If the experience, the correct action is forgotten, by trial and error everything starts again.

In education, the experience of ancestors is largely forgotten, more precisely, ignored. Ways of strong and humane influence on the growing up person, which functioned without fail in previous times and gave a guaranteed result, are lost, distorted and changed beyond recognition. We fight, as it were, to resume and prevent the slide, but the grandmother's recipe is forgotten, and the new one is much worse.

Science is a collection of experience of right actions. Experience is cleared of concrete circumstances, refined and transferred to descendants in the form of laws, laws, principles whose basic requirement is not to violate the proven system of actions. Through the laws and regularities of education, our predecessors seem to call upon us: it has already been tested and confirmed thousands of times, take high knowledge, do not repeat our mistakes, educate and educate the younger generations better than we do.

The most important, most important knowledge in every science is laws and laws. Some of the most important and general patterns and laws are called principles strong> (from Latin principis - the first, major, basic). Laws, regularities, principles constitute the foundation of the pedagogical theory. Through the rules, theory connects with practice (Figure 23).

The most general scientific category is regularity. It can be defined as the fact of having an objective, essential, necessary, general, stable and repetitive relationship between objects or real-world processes. If two or more objects (processes) interact with one another and if a change in one of them entails changes in the other, then there is a relationship between them. If this link appears permanently under certain conditions, then the pattern is already beginning to break through.

Fig. 23. The hierarchy of pedagogical knowledge

Scientists are trying to clarify the limits of this category, to establish differences between the concepts regularity and law & quot ;, which in their essence coincide. The most common point of view boils down to the fact that the law itself highlights the fact of the existence of a constant and necessary connection, but this connection has not yet been studied comprehensively. Sometimes, for brevity, it is clarified: regularity is not a fully understood law.

Laws are strictly fixed patterns. They express significant, common, stable and repetitive connections. The pedagogical law is a stable connection between two or more entities (objects, phenomena, processes) of pedagogical reality. The general law defines the connections between general entities, and in the particular laws of the essence there may be less.

Patterns are defined as scientific laws only when:

1) the entities between which communication is established are clearly fixed;

2) the type, shape, and nature of this relationship were examined;

3) established the limits of the effect (manifestation) of communication.

Reducing the diversity of objects, processes, phenomena to significant relationships, the laws maximally "condense" knowledge: it is always preferable to know a single general law than hundreds of concrete facts.

The basis of everything is communication

If the phenomenon (state) A entails a phenomenon (state) B, then these states are in communication with each other. The determining one is the cause, the dependent is the consequence. Wishing changes in the consequences, you need to work on the cause. Only in this way it is possible at its own discretion to call out the intended states. If we now ask why the planned changes are not being achieved, why it is not always possible to ensure high quality of training, why finally we can not avoid unreasonable decisions and unforeseen consequences, the answer will be one - we do not know well or we do not take into account the connections causing certain changes . Ignorance of communication, its inability to take into account always leads to large losses, generates difficulties that can be avoided if the requirements of cause-and-effect relationships are fully and correctly implemented.

Detecting, fixing, describing and explaining connections is the most important function of science. Her diligence reveals the dependencies, the relationships between the phenomena, which, at first sight, should remain forever separated; single facts cease to be alien to each other, properly meaningful, they tend to order and system. Science, we continue this thought of Aristotle, always has an object of generalization, it must always seek a common connection, a general law.

What and what is involved in educational and robursational processes? Only one answer is beyond doubt - everything is connected here with everything. The vastness of the relationship frightens us. We know how they are changeable, incomprehensible, inconstant. Appearing for a moment in one place, they are quickly replaced by others, incessantly transforming according to logic that is incomprehensible to us. But there is a tray, nothing happens by chance, and even more so without reason. And we must understand it, if we want to subordinate the educational process to our will and keep the reins of government in its hands. In the realm of chaos, we will remain slaves, slaves of chance, having mastered the knowledge of causes - become lords.

Fig. 24. Strength and stability of a regular connection

A visual communication image

I liked the visual image of communication, which was invented by the staff of the distance education department of the Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University. A lecture on the regularities of training is accompanied by a pattern of gears linked together (Figure 24). In the industrial region, everyone knows how strong and stable this relationship is. If one wheel starts to rotate, the second wheel will inevitably come into rotation.

Is it possible to teach and educate in any way ?

Some teachers respond - "yes". What kind of business is this - education, that it can be performed "in every way"? Is this true?

A dangerous illusion that has amazed pedagogy in the last two or three decades has been reduced to an uncomplicated assertion: education and upbringing are creative. Hence, as it were, the call to the teachers followed itself-create, liberate, boldly break the established canons. They, these canons, are made for other conditions, another school, yesterday's students. Time now is - forward calling.

Against creativity, including, and pedagogical, it is difficult to speak, and there is nothing to it. Its value is great and of paramount importance, but only when it comes to creativity, and not about semi-literate, amateurish pursuits stemming from ignorance of how to educate and educate. It came to the point that some teachers, violating the most unshakable pedagogical foundations, begin to object: I work, they say, creatively, out of the box. Do not you dare interfere with me. I try and I am mistaken. It is my right. So it turns out "in any way", to anyone as you like.

The teacher does not have the right to make mistakes. Errors of teachers often turn into mutilated fates and tragedies. From the gallows of negligent teachers, only the fact that in this complicated process it is difficult to prove anything unambiguously: is the pedagogical action (inaction) the cause of the events.

In this regard, pedagogical actions must be strictly controlled. Teacher should know the pedagogical laws and act in accordance with them. Especially careful to be with creativity & quot ;. You want the "appendicitis" operation to be done by you creative doctor? Wheeze teachers is no less dangerous. Everyone who undertakes a difficult work of upbringing must be strictly checked for professional suitability. The rationalization of the educational process must be carefully, principally, in order to avoid pedagogical "projecting" and not to harm pupils. Continuing to move further along the path of the general "pedagogical creativity", we go nowhere, in fact denying the laws and laws of learning - all that was achieved by our predecessors over the long centuries of the development of pedagogical science and practice. Why, then, ask if pedagogical knowledge was collected in bitterness?

Science is in some way our mother, as AP Chekhov joked, certainly not assuming that his words we will call on United States teachers and students to turn their supportive views on the knowledge accumulated by pedagogy. AP Chekhov gave us and a instructive example of the result of learning "in every way". Remember the beginning scientist, who decided to learn French? The teacher wanted to start classes with the study of the alphabet, but the student demanded that the training begin immediately with reading and translation. Three years have passed, but apart from the word memoirs our discoverer of new methods has not learned anything.

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