Phenomenology of Cognitive Styles
Developers of the cognitive-style approach note that the number of cognitive styles described in the special literature approaches two dozen (TA Ratanova, NI Chuprikova, MA Kholodnaya, and others). To the most common, forming the basis of the phenomenology of the style approach, it is possible to attribute the following cognitive styles:
- field dependence/polarity dependence;
- narrow/wide range of equivalence;
- the latitude of the category;
- rigid/flexible cognitive control
- tolerance to the unrealistic experience;
- focusing/scanning control;
- concrete/abstract conceptualization;
- cognitive simplicity/complexity.For a long time, developers of the cognitive-style approach considered cognitive styles along the lines of bipolarity, which led to the growth of serious contradictions at the level of empirical research and difficulties in developing a general theory. The way out of this situation was the idea that cognitive styles, like any other psychic property, are a multidimensional (polipolar) education (MA Holodnaya).
Another important thesis of the supporters of the cognitive-style approach was the statement about the stability of cognitive styles. The fact of relative stability of cognitive styles can be considered proven, but it should be remembered that with respect to an actively developing subject (for example, a schoolboy) about stability, one can speak with a certain degree of conventionality.
Cognitive style & quot ;, cognitive style and learning style
The term cognitive style came to United States psychology from the English-speaking culture (cognitive style ). A direct translation of the word "cognitive" in United States corresponds to the word "cognitive". However, as is known, borrowing of foreign words by the domestic psychology to enrich its own terminological apparatus has a number of peculiarities. One of the most important - the borrowed words and the terms derived from them never completely displace their United States counterparts. Thus, the terms cognitive and cognitive are used in parallel and are not considered synonyms. Just as they are not considered synonyms, for example, intellect and mind or creativity and creativity & quot ;. They are close, but not identical, each of them has its own semantic field.
The term cognitive to a greater extent characterizes the attitude of the individual to the process of reflecting reality in one's own mind. In contrast, the term cognitive mainly describes the mental mechanisms of information processing in the process of constructing the cognitive image at different levels of cognitive reflection.
Accordingly, the interpretation of the concepts cognitive style and cognitive style & quot ;. Cognitive style is an individual-original way of studying reality, and cognitive style is an individual-original way of functioning of cognitive processes. In addition to cognitive and cognitive styles, it is necessary to distinguish the style of teaching. It can be defined as an individually peculiar way of learning new experiences in learning activities.When examining the problem of the style of teaching, specialists emphasize a fundamentally important idea: all pupils can learn without exception, the only thing they often are unable to do is to study as prescribed by a specific program, textbook or teacher (B. Lou Liver). Speaking of this, MA Kholodnaya stresses that this is a problem that has not previously faced pedagogical psychology and the theory of learning - about a possible conflict of styles. On the problem of the possible discrepancy between the style of the student's teaching and the technology of teaching, the style of the teacher or the general style of the class. This is a fundamentally different view of the problem of academic success.
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