As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:


• the physiological basis of the psyche;

• structure and basic properties of the nervous system;

be able to

• analyze the temperament and its psychological characteristics;


• skills of strong-willed regulation of human behavior.

Physiological basis of the psyche and human health

The constitution means the integrity of the somatic life of an individual or a type for all its distinctiveness and to the extent that it represents something long-term. All somatic functions are related to each other. The idea of ​​the constitution is the infinite integrity of these interconnections - the integrity that determines each function separately and which, in turn, depends on a particular function taken. The visible expression of the constitution is the outward appearance of the individual. The idea of ​​the constitution as a special kind of integrity is indestructible. Having completed the analysis of a function from among individual functions, we inevitably come back to this idea again and again.

The mental constitution can be briefly described in one phrase: it is the integrity experienced by the individual as something inseparable from his somatic substance. The constitution of the individual is always the unity of the elements inherent in him and acquired. It can be said that as life is enriched by events and experiences, the primary predisposition gives rise to new and new predispositions. The typology of reaction is innate and once and for all established for each individual. But the ways of its implementation change under the influence of the environment and the external destiny of the individual. If a constitution is a certain typology of potential solutions, and with them the ability to implement certain actions and adaptive capacities, it invariably changes with the influence of the behavior and actions of the individual. Therefore, despite the fact that we distinguish the congenital (hereditary) and acquired constitution, both of them at each given moment constitute a single whole. The constitution is always the transformation of an innate predisposition, conditioned by the environment and the destiny of the individual and at each given moment of time realized in the form of a certain integral state.

Constitutional types in all their diversity are considered to belong to the norm area. They are everywhere found again and are by no means unique, one-time Variations of human types, possible only within narrow limits. But they are considered painful when they introduce an element of frustration into life, cause incapacity for a full-fledged life development and contain a pronounced predisposition to certain types of diseases. In this case, the problem of the constitution becomes a problem of pathology, because in connection with it the notion of anomalous varieties of the "human" is put forward.

When talking about a person's health, they mean physical, psychological and spiritual health. Physical health is often associated with the age of a person. In this case, biological, psychological and social age is noted. Between these age variants, a discrepancy is often found. The biological age is a concept that reflects the functional maturity of a person, as his individual tissues, organs, systems, and the whole organism. To make decisions about the physical or biological age of a person, and therefore, about the state of his health, a number of indicators are used in childhood and adolescence. "

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