Possibilities of questioning methods and projective techniques
Using polling methods - conversation, questioning, questioning, tests - with the students, the educator can find out how they understand the meaning of individual concepts (for example, kind, lazy, etc.), which will lead to a conclusion about the level of formation of moral representations and moral norms. This information is the basis of the cognitive criterion.
Conversation: The effectiveness of a diagnostic conversation depends on many factors:
• how it is prepared and how skilfully carried out;
• Does the experimenter have certain necessary experience and psychological preparation
• the personal attractiveness of the experimenter;
• whether there was a trusting relationship between the participants in the dialogue;
• how great is the frankness or, on the contrary, the suspicion of the subject;
• what is the emotional and motivational significance of subjects that are touched by the conversation, etc.
Preparation of the conversation and the development of its methodology require:
• goal setting;
• Definitions of its content;
• thoughtfulness of the wording of questions;
• highlight the signs of observation during the conversation:
- Behavior during a conversation;
- the desire to escape from an answer to a particular question;
- Translate the conversation to another topic;
- involuntary pause;
- features of mimicry and speech;
- emotional reactions;
- intonation, etc.;
• Choosing ways to fix the results of the conversation.
Answers to the questions of the conversation and the collected indirect data will help to objectively evaluate the information received in the conversation.
The structure and nature of the conversation is determined by the content and form of questions that are asked by the interviewee. Therefore, the central link in the development of the conversation is the selection and wording of questions, a preliminary check of their availability and reliability. Preparing for the diagnostic conversation, the experimenter selects the target and supporting questions; the first are aimed at the realization of the task in view - the identification of ideas, concepts, rules, judgments, attitudes, assessments of the subject; the latter help to lead the conversation. It is also useful to think in advance of possible strategies for the conversation and ways to fix the results of the conversation (dictaphone, stenographer assistant, video recording, form.
Questionnaire - research method based on special written questionnaires - questionnaires. Unlike tests (which usually refer to a group of methods a high level of formalization), a questionnaire, in principle, can be made up of any researcher. Advantages of the method are in the possibility of reaching a large number of subjects at once. However, this advantage is not always realized when questioning junior schoolchildren who are not yet able to read, understand questions, and simply focus on answering them. Therefore, questioning in primary school is often carried out individually, when the student verbally answers the questions of the questionnaire, and the teacher (or his assistant) records the answers of the questionnaire to the questionnaire form.
Projective techniques . Individual indicators are extracted from special pedagogical diagnostic techniques, which are directly aimed at identifying personal characteristics - the so-called meters. These are the techniques of the unfinished thesis, "Goldfish", "Tsvetik-semishvetik", drawing tests, moral dilemmas, unfinished story and others. The results obtained with their help will give an idea of the core integral properties of the child's personality, which are expressed in the unity of knowledge, relations, the dominant motives of behavior and actions and, as a rule, make up the content of the motivational and needful criterion of the pupil's upbringing.
The technique of "Tsvetik-semitsvetik" allows you to judge the direction of the child. Children read or recall the tale of V. Kataev Tsvetik-Semitsvetik (you can watch the animated film or filmstrip). After this, each student receives a flower-seven-flower prepared from paper. Teacher offers to write down on the petals their desires. The results are processed according to the following scheme: write down desires that are repeated or close in meaning; group: material (to have things, toys), moral (to have animals and take care of them, etc.), cognitive (to learn something, to become someone), destructive (to break, to throw, etc.). After processing the results, it is recommended to hold a conversation with children, emphasizing the social importance of moral and cognitive desires.
Methodology & "Goldfish." Children are invited to name three desires, about which they can ask for the Golden Fish. To introduce a fantastic-game situation, it is recommended to use game elements-symbols. The answers of the children are analyzed according to the following scheme: for themselves, for others (for relatives or for people in general).
Modified methodology of TE Konnikova. Allows to establish the prevailing motive of behavior. Schoolchildren are encouraged to perform three tasks of equal difficulty. The pupils were informed that the first task will be marked in the magazine; for the second - to be taken into account when performing a group task; for the third - at the request of the student. Tasks are evaluated on the quality of execution, accuracy of design, completeness of the data. Comparing the results of the three tasks, the teacher can determine which motive prevails in children, which is most important for the child as a whole: the matter itself, the interests of the collective or its own success. On the basis of this, it also determines the coordination of the social motivation of their behavior with the personal one.
The methodology of unfinished sentences. Teacher asks the children to continue writing their sentences: "Most of all I'm happy when ...", "Most of all I'm upset when ..." etc. An oral version of this technique is possible when children are asked to answer the question: "What do you think is pleasing, and what is upsetting your mother, parents, teacher?" When analyzing answers, you can identify the joys and sorrows associated with your own life, the life of the collective (class, circle, etc.).
Discussion with the students of the moral dilemma. The dilemma (from the Greek δι, δις - twice - λήμμα, taken from λαμβαίνω-beru), literal translation "twice taken," on both sides taken - a kind of syllogism, representing a choice of two assumptions, while both possible assumptions are convenient. The teacher offers students pre-prepared moral dilemmas, personally significant for them. Then he organizes a diagnostic conversation, during which it becomes possible to learn about the moral preferences and arguments of children.
The boy happens to be a witness of how his friend took someone else's thing, which the owner starts to look for. How to act as an unwitting witness of theft?
The boy was presented with a mobile phone for his birthday. He is very happy and wants to boast before another, but he knows that he can not even dream of such a thing. What is the best way to do it?
Mom asks my daughter to be with her younger brother, since she needs to go shopping. A girl is waiting for her friend to discuss some important problems. What choice will it make?
A group of classmates at the break loudly and cheerfully discussing their affairs. Everyone laughs, remembering some accident, and they do not notice that there is a newcomer to the side who has no one to talk to. What should I do?
Open the methodology for using moral dilemmas in diagnosing the education of junior schoolchildren by example.
Dilemma: Mom asks my daughter to stay with her younger brother, since she needs to go shopping. A girl is waiting for her friends to discuss some important problems.
Diagnostic interview with junior schoolchildren has the following structure.
1. The teacher asks to tell the children whether they themselves have been in a similar situation or observed it. It suggests discussing both possible outcomes of the situation by answering the questions:
• what feelings will arise in mom, girl, her girlfriends in this or that outcome;
• What will my mother say, friends with this or that outcome?
The meaning of this block of questions is that the teacher finds out how much schoolchildren are able to focus on the emotions and feelings of others (the indicator of decentration as an indicator of the well-being of moral development).
2. The teacher offers the students in turn to answer the questions:
• what choice does it make
• what would you do?
This block of discussion of the moral dilemma shows the level of resolution of the moral dilemma. There are three options:
A: The schoolboy does not give an answer - he can not distinguish the moral content of the situation. The level of moral development is low.
B: "The girl needs to go to her friends - Entertainment is stronger than debt to mother.
In: "The girl needs to obey her mother, stay and help her"; - can testify both to the conformity (obedience) of the child, and to the formation of the norm of actions.
Answers B and C do not provide characteristics of the moral level of the children interviewed; these answers need clarification, which the teacher receives through the third block of questions of diagnostic conversation.
3. The teacher asks the children to explain the motives of the girl: why she does this. There are also several possible answers for children.
And: "Mom will punish", "Mom will forbid anything" - motives of power, fear of punishment.
B: "The girl needs to go to her friends, because they need to do a common homework" and other answers of the same type. The interrogated in the case is guided by the prosocial behavior and the moral norm of helping the mother, but comes up with powerful motives to justify their violation by the girl. (Motives of this kind are called motivation for instrumental exchange.)
In: "I need to stay, because my mother will be upset" motivation of interpersonal conformity.
G: "Mom always needs help", "If the mother asks, go to her friends can not. But how else? - unconditional fulfillment of the norm as a rule. High level of moral development.
Thus, when solving the moral dilemma, the teacher is not limited to a simple (linear) question about how to proceed in the described case. As we have seen, the monosyllabic choice of the interviewee does not fully reveal the level of his moral maturation. To more accurately identify this level, the teacher uses several blocks of questions:
• Refines the respondent's answer;
• requests a detailed answer;
• Determines the reasons for choosing the answer;
• asks the children to talk about the feelings and emotions of the characters;
• encourages students to imagine how the characters will behave;
• Interested in how the children themselves acted in similar situations
The indicators obtained in the diagnostic studies correspond to the criteria, and this allows us to formulate certain characteristics of the child or a group of children in general. However, a beginning teacher should be warned about caution when handling empirical data.
First, one must keep in mind the situational and selectivity, and sometimes the insincerity of the child's answers to the tasks of the methodology. As a result, you can get an accidentally or intentionally distorted picture.
Secondly, as a rule, any technique involves a subjective interpretation of the indicators. The same answer to the question of methodology can be interpreted differently by different experimenters.
Thirdly, the results obtained can in no case be regarded as a sentence to a child, a final judgment about his personal qualities, but only as an excuse for further educational work.
In addition to the metrics proposed in the paragraph, we list the methods recommended for use in educational work in primary school.
• Methodology School Talk (a modified version of TA Nezhnova, DB El'konin, AL Venger).
• The questionnaire of motivation.
• A technique for identifying the nature of the attribution of success/failure.
• Tasks for assessing the assimilation of the norm of mutual aid; on the account of motives of heroes in the decision of a moral dilemma; on revealing the level of moral decentration;
• Profile Rate an action (differentiation of conventional and moral norms according to E. Turiel in the modification of EA Kurganova and OA A. Karabanova, 2004).
• Task "Left and right sides" (J. Piaget).
• Who is right? (GA Tsukerman and others).
• Assignment Handles (GA Tsukerman).
• Modified scale of social distance E. Bogardus.
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