As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:


• what are the axioms and postulates;

• ratio of age-related neoplasms and mental development of a person;

be able to

• Analyze the relationship between physicality and spirituality in a person;


• skills of a systematic and historical approach to problem analysis.

Axioms and postulates

Theoretical work in the field of psychology involves the nomination of probable knowledge, i.e. such information, which as if already have a heuristic force, but still need proof. The Austrian-American philosopher and physicist F. Frank in key work 1974 "Philosophy of Science" gives a perceptive analysis of the relationship between observed facts and scientific theories. He managed to dispel the myth that scientific theories can be logically deduced from the available facts and that they uniquely depend on observing the phenomenal, that is, comprehended by experience, of the world. In accordance with the theory of Frank, each scientific system is based on a small number of basic statements about reality, or axioms, which are considered self-evident. The truth of axioms is determined not by reasoning, but by direct intuition. They are not made by logic. Applying rigorous logical procedures, one can extract from the axioms a system of other statements, or theorems. There will arise a purely logical by nature theoretical system - it confirms itself, and its truth in essence does not depend on physical accidents occurring in the world. To assess the degree of practical applicability and correspondence of such a system, one should check its relation to empirical observations.

There is no such idea or such a system of thinking, even the most ancient or obviously absurd, which would not be able to improve our knowledge. For example, ancient spiritual systems and primitive myths seem strange and meaningless only because their scientific content is either unknown or distorted by anthropologists and philologists who do not possess the simplest physical, medical or astronomical knowledge. All methodologies, even the most obvious, have their own limits. Take, for example, Fromm's assessment of Freud's legacy. E. Fromm writes: "By his discovery of the discrepancy between thinking and existence, Freud not only undermined the Western tradition of idealism in his philosophical and generally accepted forms, but also made a far-reaching discovery in the field of ethics." However, according to Fromm, Freud limited the significance of his discovery by reducing the essence of the conflict to the suppression of infantile sexual aspirations, suggesting that the conflict between thinking and existence is, in fact, a conflict between thinking and infantile sexuality.

Postulate (from Latin postulatum - required) - the statement of the scientific theory adopted in the latter as original, true, but unprovable in its framework.

Ratio of age-related neoplasms and mental development of a person

The fact that in the developing organism certain endogenous (internal origin) changes occur about the deep difference between the events occurring in the realm and the events of a purely mechanical nature. At the same time, the upward development is recorded during the period of growth and maturation, the phases slowly maturing during the maturity period, the development of reversal (involution) at the final stage of development. Alternating periods of life differ in the aspect of somatic (morphological and functional) characteristics, as well as in the aspect of the typology of mental life. In connection with this, any diseases bear the stamp of the age in which they are manifested. Age is also associated with the mental development of man.

Any species of life has a certain typical life expectancy. Giant tortoises live to 300 years old, elephants - up to 200 years. A person very rarely lives up to 100 years. The life span of most animals is shorter. For example, horses live about 40 years. Life is immortal only through self-reproduction. The whole human life has always been divided into segments of seven (Hippocrates), 10, 18 (Erdman) years, or into segments of any other length. But any such division in one way or another takes into account the three great periods of human life: growth, maturation and involution. Age features of the psyche are often described in accordance with this biological division of human life.

Childhood. The child's mental life is characterized by rapid progressive development, the emergence of new and new abilities and vital feelings, high fatigue combined with the ability to quickly recover after any disorders , the developed ability to learn, the openness of extraneous influence, the exceptional power of imagination, the insufficient development of mental brakes. As a result, the child's mental life is extremely rich in events; his affects are very strong, and drives are uncontrollable. Most children and adolescents have eidetic abilities, usually disappearing as they grow older.

However, the most important feature of childhood is the rapid rate of change, advancing as it develops. The latter is not a measured, monotonous, but self-organizing wholeness, branching and at the same time retaining the original unity, expanding and simultaneously concentrating. There are periods of intense and extensive somatic growth; typical changes in the structure of the body are observed at the age of 6-7, and then 12-15 years. In children, this integrity is not just a biological event, i.e. purely organic, growth, and the mental and spiritual process of processing and transforming everything that is acquired as the experience is multiplied, the process of establishing disciplining feedbacks with the experience acquired earlier. The difference between the development of the already known and the sudden acquisition of a new ability or new knowledge, between spiritual activities and the biological stimulation of this activity is so subtle that in reality we can not separate one from the other.

Sexual maturation. The balance reached by the end of childhood is disrupted during the puberty phase, when the development of sexuality acts as one of many factors. The uneven development of the functions and direction of experiences, the chaotic onslaught of the new, the fluctuations between extremes with a pronounced tendency to exaggerations - all this leads to the fact that the individual ceases to understand himself, and the world becomes problematic for him; the individual gradually comes to realize both his own self and the world around him. Schematically, it will be possible to distinguish several different phases of puberty. So, Sh. Buhler distinguishes "negative" phase (anxiety, dissatisfaction, irritability, clumsy movements, rejection of the outside world) and "adolescent" phase (acceptance of life, cheerfulness, hopes for the future, renewal of connections with the surrounding world, culminating moments of happiness - transition to the adult state). D. Tumillz identifies three age phases: "call age (a negative attitude towards everything in the world), "ripening years" (acceptance of one's own self, "the years of youth" (acceptance of the world around us). A number of transient short-term phenomena accompanying the process of puberty are described: an ecstasy with different moods, a lie for the sake of protecting one's own personality.

Old age. Mental life in old age, in contrast to mental life in childhood, passes calmly; the faculties die down, but a larger volume of what the individual steadily owns replaces them. Deceleration, the orderliness of life, the ability to control oneself - all this subordinates the mental existent being and stabilizes it. However, often such phenomena as narrowing of horizons, impoverishment of the content of mental life, restriction of the sphere of interests, egocentric self-isolation, slipping into the field of instinctual needs of everyday existence, as well as strengthening of the signs of the initial personal constitution, such as distrust, pettiness, selfishness , - previously less noticeable due to the "take-offs" young age.

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