Potential of structural components of the game in the development...

The potential of the structural components of the game in developing the self-awareness of junior schoolchildren

According to S.L. Rubinstein (1946), the game, in contrast to the activities of non-game type (labor, art, teaching, etc.), is more active in the formation of the personality of the younger student, because it affects his deep emotional feelings more deeply. In many respects this is due to the fact that the game is a special activity in which the child first emotionally and then intellectually reveals himself, "collects his I", masteres the system of human relations and the surrounding reality.

The secret of the game, its advantage in correcting and developing work in front of other activities in which a junior schoolchild can be involved, in its structure, in the specifics of the elements forming it. Among them: the plot and content of the game, the role of play, the imaginary situation and the rules of the game. Let us examine how each structural element of the game contributes to the creation of optimal conditions for development of self-awareness of junior schoolchildren individually and with a certain combination of them.

In the book on children's fantasies, J. Rodari said: "To know yourself, you need to be able to imagine yourself" . In relation to the game, where the child often becomes conscious for the first time, it can be said more precisely: in order to become oneself, one must also conceive the possibility of imagining oneself. Imagining yourself, "trying on" on myself certain images (I'm a boy, I'm bad, I'm good, I'm brave, I'm timid, etc.), the child turns not only to himself today, the way he is, but to himself the possible, the desired or unwanted, as if experimenting with their capabilities. Creating the image of himself in the game, the child is freed from the merger with himself and with the situation, reveals a discrepancy with himself, that is, with himself. reveals himself as a person. It is important that in the image he creates, he not only reflects himself, but also builds himself, leads himself in accordance with the manner. And this means that creating an image in the game is not just a reflection of oneself, it is a transformation (development, correction).

The naturalness with which younger schoolchildren embody the image in the game and move away from the real is achieved through an imaginary situation and a role role.

In the notion imaginary situation a characteristic feature of the game is its convention. It is proved that when playing, the child always realizes the imaginary situation, and therefore always separates himself from his action or character and never completely identifies himself with them. "In the very nature of the game," writes D. B. Elkonin, "invisibly there is a magical" as if "" . A shy child - as if a teacher, an impulsive junior high school student - as if a seasoned sentry at the post, his aggressive classmate - as if a kind doctor, etc. The imaginary situation allows the child to rise above himself (to become different), to choose and test in the proposed circumstances a style of behavior that he does not yet possess or has mastered in reality. But in the game the children succeed with this, because the magic "as if" removes the burden of responsibility for the accuracy, correctness and effectiveness of game behavior. The child fearlessly tries out different variants of it, gambles in various characters and types, chooses the most acceptable and adequate situations, and as a result - knows himself better, his abilities, acquires the skills of creativity and improvisation, a voluminous vision of the situation and himself in it. Since the imaginary situation does not really exist, it is not "seen" by a child, but only "conceived", the child learns to be determined in his behavior not only by direct perception of a thing or directly acting on it, but by the meaning of this situation " .

The acquired skill in the game helps the child, finding themselves in everyday life in an unfamiliar situation, not resorting to habitual, stereotyped actions that are inappropriate in it, but to change their behavior (and therefore themselves) and make it adequate to the specific situation.

In game role , as in the imaginary situation, there are also inexhaustible opportunities for the development of the cognitive component of the self-awareness of junior schoolchildren.

The very idea of ​​a role presupposes a way out of oneself, a detachment from oneself and an awareness of this exclusion. Accepting a role, firstly, implies a consciousness of its difference from the chosen role. The child who plays the sentry, of course, does not identify himself completely with the sentry. At the same time, he plays the part of the sentry, acts as if he were a sentry; as if trying on this role. Such simultaneity of actions within the framework of the accepted role and awareness of oneself, only as performing this role, depicting these actions, such a mismatch presupposes a way beyond its own certainty. Looking at yourself from a position of role, comparing yourself with a sample requires the presence of an external position in relation to yourself, self-determination in it and, consequently, its understanding. Behaving himself in accordance with the accepted role, the child looks at this role also from the part of the player, ie. which selects the actions associated with this role. Both these positions are held in the child's mind simultaneously , and not as independently existing side by side, but as related to each other, but not merging with each other.

Secondly, by depicting a certain character, highlighting his image exactly as the game's actor, the child builds an image that is different from that of the real object, what it is. Conscious of himself portraying this character, the child at the same time builds his own image, which is different from the one depicted, and this, as it were, completes itself from the position of the accepted role.

Third, taking the role of the game, the child maintains an external position not only in relation to the character he portrays himself: he and other participants in the game do not identify with their roles. So, playing "To school", a child playing the role of a student, says to a classmate playing a teacher: "Teacher, and writing with errors!" This example shows that even when playing a role, the child realizes the existence in the game of two kinds of relationships: the relationship between the characters and the relationship between the playing children. Simultaneous awareness of these two plans is natural and easy enough thanks to the role of the game.

Thus, the variety of roles the child takes, the ease with which he changes them, determine a certain,

the perceived distance between him and the playing role. It is the possibility of an infinite variety of roles that gives the game a special charm in the eyes of children and at the same time shapes their self-awareness, gives a real experience for knowing yourself: what I am, what I can be. This new knowledge about oneself as a result of the realization that I-the real and the I-ideal do not coincide, with the help of the teacher can become the impulse of the desire to change, develop, become different.

It is advisable to use the potential of a role in the game for diagnosing and correcting the level of development of the emotional-value component of the younger schoolchild's self-awareness, his self-esteem and the level of claims. The effectiveness of the playing role in this case is explained by the fact that it launches in the child processes self-evaluation , even without being executed. The way a child participates in the selection, discussion and distribution of roles, what role it pretends to and how emotionally it reacts to what is happening - all this clearly and accurately characterizes the level of its claims and self-esteem.

A child with high self-esteem, as a rule, claims the most attractive main role. And if a sober-minded classmate or teacher remembers such a child about any of his failures, misses that have already occurred in the performance of a similar role, he will either ardently assure that now he will surely cope, or in protest they will take any non-constructive actions : defiantly offended, refuses to play at all, starts to disturb others and bully them, etc.

How to be with such a child? Whatever role he is ultimately entrusted with playing (the main one with which it is still difficult to cope with, or the secondary that is in his power), it is important that the teacher helps him analyze how successfully he played it. To put the child together and find answers to the questions: what was it and what was not? Why? What did he miss? What personal qualities prevented you? What should we strive for and how to behave in the future? Such regular and benevolent analysis, together with the teacher or collectively, with partners, helps the child not only to better understand the role, get used to it, but at the same time to realize himself, his strengths and weaknesses, ie. bring your self-esteem in line with your real capabilities.

Children with low self-esteem, on the contrary, do not pretend to be the main or bright roles; moreover, they can refuse them. They are capable of not showing themselves in any way, even if they have not got any role. How to deal with these children?

It is advisable at first to entrust these children with roles corresponding to their capabilities, and only then slightly surpassing them. Each time a teacher and other children need to broadcast positive reinforcement and support to such a child, which will gradually allow the child with low self-esteem to believe in oneself and then consolidate the self-esteem in a new, adequate level of reality.

Watching how a junior high school student chooses and performs a particular role in the game, you can identify the values ​​that he prefers. For example, a schoolchild with adequate self-esteem claims to be the captain of a ship in the game "Sea voyage". Suppose he gets this role and even copes well with it. But by what qualities, what character and behavior he gives his character, it's easy to understand that the main goal was to show oneself. Demonstrating his own dexterity, wit, courage, "captain" does not leave opportunities for other players - "sailors", "yunga", "koku" show their skills and skill. To further such a child has acquired an adequate value system, in each game, his attention should be turned to the goals and tasks that different game characters seek, and the ways in which they reach them, their behavior and personal qualities, the style of communication among themselves.

In the work on self-esteem and the level of pretensions of junior schoolchildren, a skillful treatment of the teacher with such a component of the game as a plot can be of considerable help.

Scenes children's games reflect the infinite number of situations prompted by life. The plot predetermines the character and personal qualities of the game characters, their actions and behavior dynamics. For children with inadequate self-esteem, for example, games are useful, the plot of which suggests all possible transformations of the characters: Cinderella in the Princess, the Royal daughter in Nischenka, Ivan the fool in the King, etc., i.e. when the despised outcast becomes a handsome, leader, beloved and respected, and the imaginary hero, on the contrary, suffers exposure.

Obviously, a child with an inadequately inflated self-esteem is advisable to entrust the role of a game character, which, according to the plot, prescribes a descending dynamics of development according to the criterion of success and social competence. Children with low self-esteem - on the contrary. In the event that a child with an inadequate self-esteem performs a different role, it is necessary to draw his attention to the character with whom all sorts of changes occur: how he was at the beginning, how he behaved during the course of the action, what result eventually led to it. Participating in games with similar subjects, the child gradually acquires the ability not only in the game, but also out of it to more accurately relate his own self-esteem to his real abilities and with the evaluation of himself by the surrounding - the teacher, classmates, parents.

The effective-volitional component of self-awareness of junior schoolchildren (general arbitrariness, self-control and self-control) is also effectively diagnosed and developed in the game, especially through such components as the role of play, game actions and game rules.

All children's games are based on uninhibited freedom of behavior, which IP Pavlov spoke of as inherent in a person from an early childhood "reflex of freedom". At the same time, according to LS Vygotsky, the game is a school of arbitrariness , as "freedom in the game is illusory." The natural conditions for the arbitrariness of a junior schoolchild, his self-control and self-regulation are rules of the game}.

Children usually refuse immediate impulsive behavior in the game and coordinate their actions in accordance with the game rules. But in everyday life, because of the immaturity of the active-volitional component (weak self-regulation and unstable self-control), on the contrary, they often break the rules. This is due primarily to the fact that in the game rules and all kinds of restrictions are open. Their performance or violation is immediately noticed by other players, which creates the best conditions for self-control. The child obeys the rules not by compulsion of the adult, but as if of his own volition. In other words, the game translates the requirements of an adult into the needs of the child. This is important, because for true arbitrariness it is precisely characteristic that objectively existing rules or social norms are fulfilled not by external coercion, but by one's own will, in the order of self-coercion. Thus, gaining in the game the experience of obeying the rules, younger students simultaneously acquire and improve the skills of self-control and self-regulation.

It is a mistake to assume that there are solid rules only for table and sports games. So-called creative story-role games ("To School", "Shop", "To Hospital", etc.), which seemingly are free from rigid rules, still have these rules, albeit in a hidden form. The rule is hidden in the game role itself. Having chosen this or that role (teacher, student, doctor, patient, buyer, seller, etc.), the child must obey and really obey the rules of behavior of his character and behave according to how he should behave in life. In the well-known experiment of V. Manuylenko, it was revealed that when the child performed the role of the sentry in the game, the duration of keeping the corresponding posture (at a standstill) exceeded its duration in the conditions of direct assignment to stand motionless. And if the role was performed in the presence of other children playing, the posture of immobility persisted longer than in the situation of loneliness. On the basis of these facts, DB El'konin concludes that in the game the child has a control function. The child in the game performs at the same time two functions: on the one hand, he performs his role, and on the other - controls his behavior, "so that it corresponds to the role. Consequently, the play role plays for the child simultaneously and as a pattern, orienting behavior, and as a reference for control. Comparing yourself with the sample is nothing more than self-control.

Game actions - is another element of the game that participates in the formation of an effective-volitional component of a child's self-awareness. Game actions become a form of manifestation of the activity of the child in the game, those real actions that he does. Of course, such actions are determined by the plot of the game, the imaginary situation, the nature of the role played. However, inherent in the game, ease, emancipation encourages the junior student to improvise, introduce novelty and variety into the traditional repertoire, but so that the newly invented game actions correspond to the plot, the rules of the game, game accessories. Thus, playing actions are a springboard for the development of creative freedom, the initiative of younger schoolchildren, for expanding the repertoire of his arbitrary actions.

As a result of the correction-developing work using the game, the functions of the effective-volitional component of the self-awareness of younger schoolchildren are improved. First in the game, and then in real life for a possible level of their self-control and self-control becomes quite affordable:

in behavior:

- the definition of specific goals of their actions;

- choosing from a variety of options for adequate means of achieving goals;

- anticipation of the final result of their actions and actions;

- assuming responsibility for their behavior and actions

in the motor sphere:

- an arbitrary emphasis on the muscles involved in the movement;

- distinguishing and comparing the muscular sensations when performing various actions;

- the definition of the correspondence of sensations (tension-relaxation, heaviness-ease, etc.) to the nature of the movements performed (strongly-weakly, abruptly, slowly, quickly),

In the emotional sphere:

- an arbitrary emphasis on the emotions currently being experienced;

- response with adequate emotions to the feelings and emotional states of other people, to events and phenomena of the surrounding reality;

- simultaneous attention to the expressive movements accompanying their own emotions and emotions that are experienced by others.

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