Chapter 10. Principles and rules for the derivation
As a result of studying this chapter, the learner must:
- know the system-forming principle of naturalness; the system of principles of eduction; rules for implementing the principles of education and upbringing;
- be able to recognize the operation of each principle; to take into account the operation of principles in the projected processes; characterize the processes by completeness of the implementation of the principles;
- own the rules for implementing the principles of education.
The minimum time required (in minutes) to study the material of the topic is 122.
The difficulty (in conventional units from 1.00) of the material being studied is 0.76.
The time (in minutes) required to fully master the knowledge is 214.
10.1. The system of principles of the derivation
Theoretical pedagogy seeks to discover objective laws reflecting the essential and necessary links between phenomena and factors of education. These laws give educators an understanding of the overall picture of the objective development of educational processes. However, they do not contain direct instructions for practical activities, but are only a theoretical basis for the development and improvement of teaching and upbringing technologies. Practical guidelines for the implementation of the implementation are fixed in the rules. Let's consider the principles and rules for the derivation.
The principles of education (the same principles of education and upbringing, the principles of the educational process) are the main provisions determining the content, organizational forms and methods of the educational process in accordance with its common goals and patterns. Principles are the most important practically significant patterns of education and upbringing. As we know, there are many regularities describing the educational process. They can not always be kept in memory. The status of principles receives the most important regularities, which become the basis of practical activity. They rely on teachers in their daily work. That is why principles are sometimes considered as practical provisions for organizing the educational process. In the principles of education, the normative bases of teaching and upbringing, taken in its concrete historical form, are expressed. Acting as categories of pedagogy, the principles of education generalize the operation of many laws and express the ways of their application in practice in accordance with the intended goals and specific conditions.
In pedagogical interpretation, rule is a general description of pedagogical activity in certain conditions for achieving a specific goal. Most often, the rules of training understand those guidelines that disclose certain aspects of the application of this or that principle of education.
The rules occupy the lowest step in the hierarchy of pedagogical theory and are, as it were, a transitional link from theory to practice. Based on the rules, it is impossible to predict the development of educational phenomena, which once again proves their practical orientation. The rules usually provide a typical way for teachers to act in typical learning-parenting situations.
In an even more popular interpretation, didactic rules are specific instructions to teachers about how to act in a typical pedagogical situation. That is why the appropriateness of mastering these rules raises objections to some theorists and practical teachers who believe that scrupulous enforcement of rules can adversely affect the development of creative initiative. The main attention, in their opinion, should be given to the study of theory, the assimilation of the skills of its creative application in practice.
The old pre-revolutionary school, on the contrary, focused on teaching teachers specific rules of teaching and educational work. Teaching aids for teachers of those years - is, in fact, a collection of pedagogical rules, recommendations, if possible for all cases of school life. Not surprisingly, everything that was not consistent with tradition and rules, was resolutely stopped. The teacher had to work only by the rules.
Truth, as always, is between extremes. You can not get too carried away by the rules and demand their pedantic implementation, because overly zealous performance can really lead to a shackle in the creative initiative of teachers, but one can not refrain from abandoning them altogether so as not to fall into the voluntarism of teaching-upbringing "in every way." In the training and education of schoolchildren, as in all other labor processes, there are a lot of standard, typical situations when the teacher does not need to show special creativity, moreover, it can damage. Here it is just necessary to act in compliance with the rules. Let us recall the importance attached to the rules of education and upbringing of the classics of pedagogy: YA Komensky, A. Disterweg, KD Ushinsky, D. Dewey.
The rules prescribe the teacher to perform certain actions in a given situation, orient him to meet certain requirements, but how this will be done depends entirely on the teacher. For example, the student was late for the beginning of the lesson and appeared in the class after the call. The rule instructs the teacher to exercise in this situation an educational impact, since any violation of discipline should not go unnoticed. However, the way a teacher reacts to this violation depends entirely on the specific situation, the personality of the student, the nature of the delay, the relationships that have developed, and many other reasons.
The rules follow from the principles of training. Principles are realized through rules. In this regard, the rules can be called ways (means) of implementing the principles. It remains to add that the rules not only automatically follow from the principles, but are a generalization of the practical experience of many generations of teachers. Practical experience of teaching and upbringing is most precisely fixed in rules (written or unwritten). On the one hand, it plays a positive role, as continuity persists, the best traditions of education are affirmed, on the other, negative, because not only good but bad (mostly unwritten) rules are fixed, which can be very difficult to change. >
How many rules are there? This question is best answered with the words of K. Ushinsky: "... These rules themselves have no boundaries: they can all be placed on one printed sheet, and several volumes can be made from them. This one already shows that the main thing is not at all in studying the rules, but in studying those scientific foundations from which these rules follow. "
Normally, the rules have the form of reminders to the teacher about what is needed, or what not to do to fulfill the requirements of the principle. The answer to the question of why it is necessary to act in one way or another, they do not contain. The answers to this question are given by laws, regularities and the most important of them - the principles.
Potion of all sages
Rules are based on principles, principles act through rules - such is the dialectical connection between them. Why are the rules for the implementation of principles also called the rules of pedagogical skill? Take a closer look at the work of a professional and try to filter everything that you see and hear through the sieve of the many requirements of the principles. What will happen? First of all, the full implementation of these requirements. It turns out that a good teacher is also good, which embodies all the multifaceted demands. Rules for the implementation of principles - this is the level of professionalism, climbing on which reach the heights of pedagogical skill, provided, of course, not dogmatic, but creative development.
How should the rules be formulated? Not otherwise than in the form of advice - reminders, what to do in order to fulfill the requirements of the principles. The answers to the question - why it is necessary to act this way - the rules almost do not contain. Let's compare pedagogical rules with grammatical rules. The latter indicate the need to perform certain actions, but they do not disclose theories and the mechanism for their implementation. For example, the rule of separating a verbal participle on both sides of a comma does not explain how to find this turn. Similarly, the pedagogical rules reveal only the essence of a certain requirement. The creativity of the teacher within the rule is to find specific ways, the mechanism for implementing the requirements. Each of these paths will be unique.
Are the classical rules of teaching and upbringing applicable and the rules that operated in the Soviet school designed to form a comprehensively and harmoniously developed personality in a market pedagogical system where other goals and objectives are set before the school, where they are taught and educated, relying primarily on personal needs and requests?
There are no special rules for the educational process taking place in the market school, but, of course, some rules required changes. In the part where the rules relate to the academic subject, the methods of pedagogical activity, they remain unchanged, and the rules concerning relations with schoolchildren are substantially transformed. Much of what the authoritarian school teacher could afford, where the child was an "app" to the subject of learning, one must forget forever. The pedagogy of cooperation, partnerships, complemented by market rules of interaction, multiplied by individual freedoms, introduces new rules and requires their observance.
Let us formulate the rules that are in effect today, in a difficult period of transition to new market realities. Naturally, in the new rules, rudiments of yesterday will remain for a long time, but new demands sound new in them. We should be attuned to the fact that overnight we will not find ourselves in a market paradise, it will take a long way to abandon the old and adopt a new one. And it remains to be seen where he will lead us.
Useful information for the correct actions of teachers in a market school
1. Human rights guarantee the freedom of choice of education, schools, teachers, subjects of study. A child can attend an educational institution, or can refuse from it, choose an alternative path of his own development. Edication can not be compulsory and mandatory. Recognize the new realities.
2. We choose, we choose. The teacher is not a passive contractor, but a self-respecting specialist, whose opinion is the consumer of pedagogical services. What position we will take, how we will imagine ourselves, what kind of niche we will win - so we will enter the market.
3. Children remain children even under socialism, even under market capitalism. Learning to look at the root. We will separate the seeds from the chaff. We will not identify the Mercedes with the capabilities, and the washed jeans - with a lack of intelligence.
4. The behavior of children is substantially modified. There are groups, parties, teams, clubs. We will find a common language with everyone. The school unites, but does not separate. The school, like the church, equalizes everyone.
5. Dependency how much money, so much education is valid only up to a certain limit. One drachma - one lesson, two drachmas - two lessons, and then the wise man doubted - how much to take for three and four lessons. Solve this issue flexibly and always in favor of the student.
6. Respect the choice of the student, whatever he is. You can not order a free man.
7. Be based on market incentives, they are simple and intelligible.
8. Conclude contracts with students and their parents. This will save you from many misunderstandings and troubles. Take responsibility only for 50% of the total case and product.
9. Ensure the quality of your services. Then you will be in demand as a professional, a master of your craft. Reputation in the market weighs a lot. Strictly fulfill the obligations assumed.
10. Despite the rigidity of market relations, do not allow devaluation of universal values, do not give up eternal principles for the sake of immediate benefits, do not be degraded in your dignity.
11. Competition is a strong incentive for professional growth. Who will the teacher blame if they choose not him? We will learn to work better.
12. If the student and his parents chose productive technology, then do not give up on her instructions so that success is guaranteed.
13. If a pupil and his parents chose "sparing" technology of personality-oriented education, adhere to its main provisions. Do not confuse the principles of different technologies.
14. In sparing technology, instead of giving direct orders, even in a mild form, it is better to bring the students to the right decision: that they themselves offer what you were going to say to them. The person who made the decision will always work better and more efficiently.
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