Principles of teaching (didactic principles)
Principle as didactic category
Theoretical ideas about learning and its patterns find an outlet in practice, can serve as a guide for designing and implementing the learning process through principles and some other normative installation categories: requirements, advice, recommendations, instructions, rules, algorithms. They serve as a kind of bridge connecting theory and practice. As a normative practice for practice, the principle is universal, it is mandatory for any stage, for any learning situation, while other normative categories (rules, advice, recommendations, requirements) are not so mandatory ("there is no rule without exception"), besides the rules, algorithms, instructions are different for certain situations and areas of activity. Principles also reflect the common for all situations, the invariant of activity, its general regulatory. Principle - is an instrumental expression of the pedagogical concept, of cognized laws and regularities, in the categories of activity, this knowledge about the goals, essence, content, structure of instruction, expressed in a form that allows using it as a regulative norms of practice. The empirical substantiation of the principles, which was previously derived directly from practice, is now replaced by a complete theoretical justification, given by the scheme: a practical problem - a scientific problem - a solution - a hypothetical of - ways to test - theoretical interpretation of the results - the principle.
Principles are considered in traditional didactics as recommendations directing pedagogical activity and the educational process as a whole, as ways to achieve pedagogical goals, taking into account the laws and conditions of the educational process. The statement itself does not raise objections, however, indicating the purpose of the principle, it does not reveal the essence of the principle as a didactic category. It seems to us that the essence of any principle is that it is a landmark, a recommendation on ways to achieve a measure, harmony, productive interaction in a combination of some opposite sides, beginnings, tendencies of the pedagogical process. Opposing trends in learning either are reflected in the essence of the principle itself, or are revealed in its interaction with other principles.
Let's turn from this point of view to the leading principles of teaching, the modern reading of which will be given below. Indeed, the principle of developing learning from the stated point of view regulates:
- the ratio of mastering the content of the studied and development;
- the principle of strength - the relationship and interaction between perception and reflection, on the one hand, and memorization - on the other;
- the traditional principle of scientific regulation regulates the relationship between phenomenon and essence, explanation and forecast, interpretation and transformation of reality;
- the principle of positive motivation and a favorable emotional background - the ratio of individual interest and duty, rational and emotional;
- the principle of activity and independence presupposes a changing measure of the combination of pedagogical regulation and increasing independence of trainees.
There are principles, the duality of which lies in their very name: the connection between theory and practice, the combination of teamwork with individual-personal orientation.
Learning Learning Framework
In any manual or manual on didactics is spoken about the system of principles of teaching. But it is possible to classify a set of principles as a system only when the system-forming element (elements) are separated, the links of these elements, their common system-forming qualities. In the set of acting principles, the first principle is often called the principle of scientific character (LI Gritsenko, NV Savin, LP Krivshenko), or the principle of activity. We believe that if we consider learning as a purposeful, joint activity of the trainer and trainees as a movement along the chain: the goal (the anticipated result) - the content - the conditions and factors - the methods and technologies - the result, then the principle of the developing and educating education, the leading category is the education system, and the phenomenon of "developing learning", which we have already analyzed, will act as an active, stimulating factor in its functioning and development. It is this principle that expresses the leading goal of the functioning of the pedagogical system, it connects the main pedagogical categories (education, training, development), determining their subordination, and all the other principles are in relation to the said as recommendations on the means and conditions for achieving the main goal - the formation of the required features personality, comprehensive development of trainees and the environment in which they will live and work. The content of the leading principle is the regulation of communication and interaction between the mastery of knowledge, modes of activity and development, between the descriptive-factual and evaluative-analytical aspects of learning, between familiarizing the trainee with the values of society, adapting it to society and individualizing, preserving and developing the uniqueness and uniqueness of the individual.
All other principles are requirements to the conditions, content, activities, organization of the implementation of the leading principle - developing and nurturing education.
The system is also formed by the fact of mutual conditioning and interpenetration of principles. Principles are not simply related, they are not just complementary, their interaction acts as the action of each of the principles through all the others, like the inclusion by each principle of all others as its content basis, as "refraction" every principle through all the others.
For the vocational education system, the second important principle that realizes the goals is the principle of the fundamental nature of education and its professional orientation. It requires the correlation of orientation to broad and deep erudition and specific specialization, fundamentality and manufacturability in the preparation and results training, successful development of general and special professional abilities of the individual.Objectives and the content of training that provides them realization reveals the principle of cultural and nature suitability, or of sociocultural and natural conformity. In the history of pedagogy, it was expressed by two principles: culture and appropriateness of nature. Traditionally (Ya. A. Komensky, Zh.-Zh. Russo, IG Pestalozzi, KD Ushinsky, LN Tolstoy), these principles expressed the demand to build education, in accordance with the development of its natural basis, and also with the laws of the child surrounding the social environment. Culture, as already noted, is presented in broad learning: the foundations of science (humanitarian and natural), the foundations of technology and production, practical experience, customs and traditions, religion, morality, philosophy, art, education, etc. Culture is the one building material, that source, mastering which a growing person himself acquires the properties of culture, cultural appropriateness, becomes its carrier, successor and creator.
These principles as leading, system-forming and underpin the whole system of principles of learning. But what about the assessment of the role and place of the principle of scientific ? Has this principle remained one of the leading or works in the structure of culture and the principle of cultural appropriateness? This is a debatable question. At the same time, it is of fundamental importance to decide the question of what to base many school courses: scientific knowledge, scientific achievements or religious and religious beliefs, considering that both enter culture, while philosophical views play an important role in culture and art.
We believe that science, classical and modern scientific knowledge are the general cementing beginning of the study of natural science disciplines, mathematics, computer science, engineering and technology, and vocational training. Along with science, the position of philosophy, morality and morality, religion, and art can also have an important place in the social-social cycle.
It should be taken into account that the provisions of science, many norms of morality, the phenomena of art unite all the people of the world, help to understand each other. As for religion, the powerful traditional moral charge that it carries, of course, unites people, but confessional differences and disagreements divide them, breed competition of faiths.
In the applied and practical subjects (languages, physical culture, drawing, life safety protection, etc.), subjects of the artistic cycle (literature, music, fine arts, choreography, drawing), the predominant role is played not by the scientific, but by the practical, aesthetic , moral content, appeal to social and personal experience, feelings, common sense.
The boundaries of scientificity are therefore not comprehensive, mobile, they integrate with broader cultural and historical approaches. The definition of ways and measures of a combination of "strict" scientific approach with broader cultural approaches is one of the directions for resolving the contradictoriness of the scientific principle and its interface with other principles and approaches.
The internal contradictoriness of the principle of scientificity also lies in the fact that in teaching it requires the reproduction of the real movement of science from description to explanation and from explanation to prediction, from the establishment of facts to their generalization, requires a combination of logical analysis and a concrete historical approach, and mastering the methodological and methodological apparatus of scientific research and necessarily - the connection between theory and practice. That is why we consider it legitimate to talk about a single principle - the principle of scientificity and the connection between theory and practice. At the same time, the principle of scientific character and the principle of the connection between theory and practice are often shared. However, we believe that they can be considered together because of a very close relationship (theory is developed and formalized scientific knowledge that generalizes the practice and serves it).
This principle requires that all the studied knowledge be given in a modern, though accessible, interpretation so that the history of science, modern theories, and the predictions that science offers, especially about possible ways and conditions for achieving a balance between nature and man, as well as harmony within the human community. In many spheres of morality, morality, clarification of the meaning of a person's life, his responsibility towards other people, science finds an ally in the person of the ministers of religious confessions. Modern scientific knowledge should be structurally presented to the students in a holistic, but dissected into facts, ideas, theories, research methods, evidence, consequences and methods of application.
We have already stressed that scientific theories, structured knowledge, and not practice play the leading, decisive role in building the teaching of the basics of science in high school, and even more so in a university. Both scientists and educators realized the truth of the saying, "attributed" then Gekeli, then Louis de Broglie, then Λ. Einstein: "There is no more practical thing than a good theory," but the theory, so that it does not remain abstract, must be built on the basis of the experience already accumulated by the students, relying on it, but simultaneously reconstructing and developing it (so-called vital education, from the lat . vita - the life developed in recent years by AS Belkin). Having studied some theoretical positions, it is necessary to give them an outlet in practice, to bring theoretical positions to the stage of actions, operations, procedures, technologies, to develop the students' ability and skills to apply the acquired knowledge. Of course, this requirement can not be understood dogmatically. Not every knowledge, especially historical and philosophical, has a direct way to practice, but it has a mediated way: to the level of world understanding, appraising and transforming activity, relations, self-knowledge.The movement from theory to practice and from practice to theory is a reflection of the historical pattern of cognition of the world and its mastering by man, and practice can in various forms precede, follow or follow the theoretical generalizations.
The forms of communication with practice are very diverse - from references to facts and events to practical work, exercises and excursions, including real social roles (helping disabled people, participating in actions, etc.).
Science itself is a system of knowledge, including facts, theorems, laws, hypotheses, theories, principles, methods, consequences and their assimilation. It requires for its development of systematic educational work, including the operation of theoretical concepts and practical ways of transforming reality. Equally persevering and consistent work is also needed for mastering experience, traditions, and improving the spiritual world of man. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the principle of systematic and systemic nature.
In the traditional plan, it contains a very important requirement of consistency and continuity, where each subsequent knowledge or skill is based on the preceding and continues to enrich it. However, it is necessary to emphasize that serious changes have taken place in the consideration of the systematic principle. Systematicity has now become understood not only as a sequence and continuity, but also as a systemic reflection in the consciousness of not only the concept or even the law, but the theory (L.Ya. Zorin) and the integral scientific picture of the world. And here it is especially important to understand how the element and system, the part and the whole, the individual and the total, the cognized and the unknown, are combined and are affirmed uniquely and variably.
Naturally, the whole consists of parts, of individual facts, proofs, theorems, consequences, but it does not boil down to them. The student must, firstly, master the theory studied as a system, and this is not easy with linearly discrete construction of courses, when studying the material in small portions, stretched, say, for a year. And secondly, from individual theories and other elements of knowledge, experience, traditions, he must first form a partial, and then a complete picture of the world. And if the first task is somehow solved in the educational literature, on generalizing lessons, in integrated courses "Fundamentals of Natural Science", "Man and the World" and others, the second has not yet found a solution.
We examined the principles that interpret the goals, the essence and content of training. Next, we would name the principles that characterize the internal conditions of productive learning: the consciousness and activity of the trainees, the visibility, complexity, accessibility, strength, the creation of positive motivation and a favorable emotional learning climate.
The principle of consciousness and activity of students in teaching expresses the essence of the activity concept: the student can not be taught without including it in his own more complicated purposeful activity. All mental neoplasms - abilities, relationships, meanings, motives, aspirations - are the fruit of active activity. At the same time it is necessary for the learner to master all types and levels of activity: recognition, reproduction (reproduction, algorithmic action), creative transforming activity.
Then, by tradition, we should move on to the principle of visibility. Visibility is associated with the work of the sense organs (analyzers) - and not only visual, but also auditory, and tactile, and motor.
The Golden Rule, formulated by Ya. A. Komensky, read: everything visible to vision, audible to hearing, smelled to smell, tangible to touch, i.e. included the inclusion in the knowledge of as many receptors as possible. However, it turned out that not always inclusion of all receptors is necessary and expedient, and most importantly - the principle of clarity was more capacious, deep and concrete. Now we are talking about the role of visibility as a means of transition from the assimilation of a particular material to its abstract interpretation and from the abstract to a deeper knowledge of the concrete. The world is originally a child in images. In them an undivided whole is represented in its richness and diversity (primary, yet undifferentiated concrete). Without attaining the wealth of concrete there is no basis for further knowledge. In the creation of such a base - the meaning of such kinds of visibility, as natural visibility (natural objects and objects), visual clarity (drawings, photographs, etc.), real models. At the stage of transition to abstract concepts, other means of clarity, such as diagrams, tables, graphs, symbols, are necessary; abstract symbolic form of visibility. It helps to create generalized ideas about phenomena and processes, to comprehend the essence and dynamics of the subject. Otherwise, knowledge will remain within the framework of narrowly specific images and representations.
With a more generalized approach, it is possible to formulate a general principle of complexity: a harmonious and optimal combination in teaching not only concrete and abstract, but also rational and emotional, reproductive and productive activities, visual, verbal and practical methods of teaching . This is the content of the general pedagogical and didactic principle of the complexity and harmony of education, including the formation of a single picture of the world, an understanding of the organic nature of intersubject connections, a systematic approach to studying and transforming the world.
In recent decades, the content of the principle of accessibility has been revised and deepened. It should be understood as a call for the removal of difficulties, for easy learning. It requires a measure of difficulty to be overcome with the help of a teacher and teaching tools in the process of rationally organized activity in the "near development zone" student.
The principle of accessibility, in the light of the concept of developmental learning, regulates the relationship between popularity, comprehension and cognitive difficulties that go beyond the nearest development zones & quot ;, and defines a measure of the difficulty that is appropriate in learning to stimulate development.
The traditional principle of strength, based on the ancient motto "repetition - the mother of the doctrine", also has not lost its relevance, yet again requires modern decoding. First, "do not all consume the (M. N. Skatkin), but to strive to remember firmly only the initial propositions, the leading ideas, the logic of the proof. Secondly, priority is given not to repeated reproduction of the same text, but to a variable return to the subject studied in various situations, which require the actualization and use of its provisions in practice, and the rational correlation between perception and comprehension.
The principle of positive motivation and a favorable emotional climate (background) of learning. In authoritarian pedagogy, the motive of obligation prevailed. The student first of all had to realize the necessity of training and his duty to fulfill the program and the requirements of the teacher. In humanistic pedagogy, involving the cooperation and co-creation of the teacher and students, the need to stimulate the internal motives of the teaching: interests, needs, aspiration to cognition, enthusiasm for the process and the results of the teaching is growing. A calm and friendly tone of communication, respect for the inner world of a schoolboy, an optimistic attitude of both the teacher and his students - everything that determines the emotional comfort of participants in the educational process contribute to the formation of profound motives for teaching, the success of academic work. He does not exclude, but limits the scope of forced and, especially, repressive regulation.
The principles of teaching, thus, concretize for the educational process the general ideas of the modern pedagogical concept - humanism, social and personal orientation, activity, holistic and optimization approaches.
The described sequence of principles reflects their general orientation toward developing and educating goals, regulates the system of designing and implementing the educational process - the means and methods of pedagogical guidance and learning cognition. In the above hierarchy, the implementation of each subsequent principle creates conditions for the full realization of the preceding for the sake of achieving the overall goals of education and upbringing.
Each of the principles has its own content, not overlapped by other principles, as a reflection of the ways of harmonizing the conflicting aspects of the educational process or certain trends in the educational process that are manifested in the actual interaction of one principle with others. Here it is possible to single out the relations of concretization (for example, the principle of developmental learning is concretized in all other principles) and the relationship of the opposite (for example, scientific and accessible). In the nerve case, one principle reveals, complements another, in the second - in some ways confronts, constitutes opposition to another principle, determines the measure of its expediency.
Like any system, the system of learning principles has such integrative features that its elements do not possess separately. It seems that such a feature is primarily harmony, since only the whole system of principles makes the tendencies of functioning and modernization of the process mutually conducive, contributing to the harmony of the course and results of training. It is necessary to note also such integrative qualities of the system of principles as expediency, efficiency, openness for new content and new technologies.
The system of principles is a purposeful system aimed at obtaining a useful result: a nurturing and developing effect. Each component of such a system contributes, a certain share of assistance in obtaining the overall result. The interrelation of the components of such a system is best expressed by the term interaction (PK Anokhin). It is the necessity of interaction and interaction that limits the degree of freedom in the manifestation of each individual principle (ie the boundary of its action), on the one hand, and the nature of its functioning (internal organization, methods of external manifestation, etc.), on the other.
The system of principles also has the property to fully reflect the learning process and therefore opens the possibility of an integrated approach to its improvement, in which changes in individual components are somehow reflected by other components and general characteristics of the process.
Let us now return to the original thesis about the interrelationship of laws and laws of learning and embodying them in the instrumental, practice-oriented form of learning principles. It is possible to trace the direct connection of the basic laws and regularities with the leading principles that make it possible to build educational progress in accordance with its laws (see Figure 2.3). However, another, more general relationship and interaction of the block of the whole complex - laws and regularities and a set of interrelated principles (this dependence is also reflected in the scheme) is clearly traced. That is why cognition, mastery and use of the system of didactic principles is an integral component, the condition of the scientific approach to building and reforming education, ensuring the conditions for its productive functioning and development, and the selection and improvement of methods, methods and technologies of teaching.
Fig. 2.3. Connection of laws, laws and principles (for general education schools)
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