Professional-pedagogical abilities and personal qualities of a teacher
Any profession, having specific characteristics, makes special demands on a person. The more complex the structure of professional activity, the more significant its goal and result for society, the more diverse professional tasks, the higher the requirements for a professional. The scope of these requirements can not be limited only to knowledge, skills and skills, it inevitably expands into the sphere of personal characteristics.
Taking into account the peculiarities of pedagogical activity, its complexity and versatility, and most importantly, the most socially significant goal - the preparation for the life of the younger generation, the question arises as to what scientifically justified requirements the teacher's identity should meet? In other words, what should be the modern teacher?
Perhaps this is one of the most difficult questions that pedagogical science is constantly looking for. Despite the huge accumulated experience, the issue remains open and continues to excite both educators and psychologists, as well as teachers themselves, as well as students, parents and the whole society.
In the qualification characteristics, generalized requirements for the personality and professional competence of the teacher are disclosed, but the dominant position in them is the set of knowledge, skills and necessary for the organization of the educational process in the school. This is due to the fact that the activity approach has been and remains the leading in the theory of pedagogical education. But it should be borne in mind that in the framework of the activity approach the figure of the teacher turns out to be completely dependent on the subject-technological aspect of pedagogical work, and the teacher is depersonalized.
However, it is to the personality of the teacher that the society makes particularly high demands (the teacher should be not only intelligent and knowledgeable, but also kind, sympathetic, cultured, loving children, etc., etc.). Therefore, only at the personal level, the teacher can be regarded as an active subject who realizes his way of life in the pedagogical profession, readiness to define tasks, to take responsibility for their own and independent decision. This is a level of internal activity, in which the teacher is able to act independently of the particular situations and circumstances that develop in his biography, to create these circumstances, to develop his own strategy of professional conduct and activity. "
Therefore, today the content of the teacher's professional readiness is accumulated in the professiogram. The professiogram is a kind of ideal model that includes the characteristics of professional activity and personality characteristics, it simulates an anticipated result that exists ideally, it should be obtained after a certain period of training and education of the student, it provides an opportunity to foresee specific ways, means, operations, criteria for vocational training and professional perfection of the teacher. Special role professiogram plays in the development of questions of diagnostics of professional suitability and methods of professional selection of youth in pedagogical educational institutions, as well as in the organization of vocational and pedagogical orientation of schoolchildren. Professionals can be used to improve the system of professional development and retraining of teaching staff. Scientific development of the teacher's professiogram means, firstly, a thorough identification of the basic properties and characteristics of the pedagogical profession, not through empirical nomenclatures, but on the basis of an analysis of all aspects of the teacher's activity and, secondly, the definition of those requirements that are projected by society.
The construction of a professionogram should be preceded by a study of the psychology of the individual, as well as the specification of the personal and professional qualities of the teacher. This problem can be solved both on the basis of the use of experimental methods, and through a monographic study of creative biographies of masters of pedagogical work.
Psychologists, in justifying the profession, turn to the establishment of a list of pedagogical abilities that are a synthesis of the qualities of the mind, feelings and will of the individual.
Pedagogical abilities are the totality of the individual psychological features of the teacher's personality that meet the requirements of pedagogical activity and determine success in mastering this activity. The difference between pedagogical abilities and pedagogical skills is that pedagogical abilities are characteristics of the individual, and pedagogical skills are separate acts of pedagogical activity carried out by a person at a high level.
As noted earlier, the complexity of pedagogical activity presupposes a wide range of abilities that a teacher must possess. In this regard, in psychological and pedagogical science, there are various classifications of pedagogical abilities. Most authors agree that there are general (necessary for all teachers, regardless of the subject taught) and special (determined by the specifics of the taught subject) pedagogical abilities.
Thus, VA Krutetsky conditionally distinguishes three groups of general pedagogical abilities: didactic, organizational-communicative and personal .
1. The ability to communicate information to children, making it accessible, to present the material or problem to children is clear and understandable, to provoke interest in the subject, to stimulate an active independent thought among students.
2. Expressive-speech abilities are the ability to express their thoughts and feelings in a speech form, colored with expressive facial expressions and pantomime.
3. Academic (cognitive) abilities are associated with the constant need of the teacher to deepen and expand his knowledge in the field of the taught subject.
4. Distributed attention is the ability to distribute attention simultaneously between two or more activities.
Organizational and communicative abilities.
1. Communicative abilities - abilities for pedagogical communication, which manifest themselves in the ability to establish, form a pedagogically-appropriate position in relation to schoolchildren, what is defined
The style and tone of the relationship with students (both with the team and with individual students).
2. The pedagogical tact is a sense of proportion in the behavior and treatment of the teacher with students, the ability to find the most appropriate measures of impact on students, taking into account their mental state at the moment, as well as the specific situation.
3. Organizational abilities of the teacher are manifested in two forms. First, in the ability to organize a student collective and, secondly, in the ability to organize oneself as a subject of pedagogical activity.
4. Suggestive abilities (translated from Latin - "based on suggestion") are expressed in the direct volitional influence of the teacher on the students, in his ability to make demands and to achieve their fulfillment.
1. Perceptual abilities (from Latin. "Perception" - "perception") - is the ability of the teacher to perceive the student, and not only his external characteristics, but, mainly, his inner world. This is a kind of insight. Associated with a subtle understanding of the personality of the student and his temporary mental states.
2. Pedagogical imagination (or prognostic abilities) is the teacher's ability to foresee the consequences of his actions with respect to the student with sufficient degree of probability.
3. Ability of self-regulation of the emotional sphere and behavior. In this general capacity, two components can be distinguished:
a) self-control and self-control - is the ability always, in any situation, in an unforeseen situation, to control oneself, manage your feelings, temperament, not to lose even for a short time of control over your behavior;
b) self-regulation of mental states - the teacher's ability to create an optimal mental state, which is characterized by vigorous confidence, cheerfulness, optimism, benevolence.
A. I. Shcherbakov refers to the most important pedagogical abilities: didactic, constructive, perceptive, expressive, communicative and organizational.
In the studies of N. V. Kuzmina, such abilities as pedagogical observation, pedagogical imagination, pedagogical tact, attention distribution, organizational abilities are revealed.
F. N. Gonobolin lists and reveals the following abilities that are necessary for the teacher: the ability to understand the student, the ability to present material, the ability to develop students' interest, organizational abilities, pedagogical tact, foreseeing the results of their work, etc.
As can be seen from the above classifications of pedagogical abilities, they equally cover the entire structure of pedagogical activity. Their authors only differently group, classify important abilities and personal qualities of the teacher.
Teacher exercises the most important social function - the spiritual reproduction of man, and hence society. Teacher is not only a profession, the essence of which is to translate knowledge. This is a high mission, the purpose of which is the creation of personality, the affirmation of man in man. That is why most of the characteristics of the teacher and the requirements for it are set by society, the representation in society about what a good teacher should be and how it should not be.
Based on the results of the research, in which it was necessary to describe the desirable and undesirable characteristics of the teacher, the personal and professional-pedagogical qualities of the teachers that make up the polar profile of the "reference" model teacher-educator. These include: personal disorganization, inability to organize children to carry out a common cause and bring it to the end, lack of initiative, indifferent attitude to pedagogical activity, dislike for schoolchildren, ignorance of their psychology, lack of self-control, endurance, haste, nervousness, pliability, suggestibility.
Based on this, VA Slastenin defined the following basic properties and characteristics of the teacher's personality .
1. High civic engagement and social responsibility. Such a teacher will not be indifferent either to the affairs of the country or to the destinies of children. The main focus of his work is a high professional duty. He is able to critically evaluate his own work and the activities of others, will not go on a deal with his conscience.
2. Love for children, the need and ability to give them their heart. The teacher, who loves and understands children able to pedagogical work with them, parents, colleagues, he sees in the formation of a growing personality chief meaning of life. Such a teacher is not eradicates the shortcomings and defects & quot ;, and, based on the diagnosis of the individual pupil, determines the strategy and tactics of its development.
3. Genuine intelligence, spiritual culture, desire and ability to work together with others. He is able to find the right application to his forces and abilities in collective pedagogical creativity. He is above petty grievances, ambitions and addictions, contributes to the creation of a favorable moral and psychological climate in the team. Such a teacher becomes a living example for children.
4. High professionalism, innovative style of scientific and pedagogical thinking, readiness to create new values and to make creative decisions. The template and stencil are strongly contraindicated. The teacher is the creator, he is in the continuous search for non-standard approaches to the constantly evolving personality. He is not only able to clearly and unmistakably act on the model, but also owns an individual style of pedagogical humanities and human studies.
The teacher can not, has no right to stop in his scientific, spiritual, ideological growth. It can not be turned into a milepost, which points the way to others, and itself stands still.
The changing realities of life require from the teacher constant stress of all his powers, great neuropsychological costs, to a certain extent selflessness and selflessness.
In the teacher's profession, the leading role is taken by the direction of his personality.
The social and moral orientation of the teacher's personality finds his expression in the system of his value orientations, among which the leading place is occupied by humanistic; orientation on the personality of the child and its development, on dialogue with him, on the upbringing of civic engagement of students, etc.
In the structure of the teacher's personality, a special role belongs to the professional pedagogical orientation. It is the framework around which the main professionally significant properties of the teacher's personality are assembled.
The professional orientation of the teacher's personality is characterized primarily by the presence of interest in the pedagogical profession and pedagogical vocation. The basis of pedagogical orientation is the interest in the profession of the teacher, which finds its expression in a positive emotional attitude towards children, parents, pedagogical activity in general and its specific types, in striving to master pedagogical knowledge and skills. The pedagogical vocation, unlike the pedagogical interest, which can also be contemplative, means a propensity that grows out of an awareness of the ability to pedagogical work.
The basis of the pedagogical vocation is love for children. This fundamental quality is a prerequisite for self-improvement, purposeful self-development of many professionally significant qualities that characterize the professional pedagogical orientation of the teacher.
Among such qualities - pedagogical duty and responsibility. Guided by the feeling of pedagogical duty, the teacher is always in a hurry to help children and adults, all who need it, within their rights and competence; he is demanding of himself, strictly following the peculiar code of pedagogical morality.The teacher's relationship with colleagues, parents and children, based on the recognition of professional duty and a sense of responsibility, constitute the essence of the pedagogical tact, which is both a sense of proportion and a conscious dosage of action, and the ability to control it and, if necessary, balance one means to others. The tactic of the teacher's behavior in any case is to, in anticipation of its consequences, choose the appropriate style and tone, the time and place of the pedagogical action, and make timely adjustments to them.
The pedagogical cycle largely depends on the personal qualities of the teacher, his outlook, culture, will, civic position and professional skills. It is the basis on which a trusting relationship develops between teachers and students. Especially distinctly pedagogical tact is manifested in the supervisory activity of the teacher, where special attention and justice are extremely important.
Pedagogical justice is a kind of measure of the objectivity of the teacher, the level of his moral upbringing. VA Sukhomlinsky wrote: "Justice is the basis of the child's trust in the educator. There is no abstract justice - outside of individuality, beyond personal interests, passions, impulses. To become fair, it is necessary to know the spiritual world of every child to the fineness. "
The qualities of the personality that characterize the professional pedagogical orientation of the teacher are a prerequisite and a concentrated expression of his authority. If within the other professions the expressions "scientific authority", "recognized authority in their field" are habitually sounded, etc., then the teacher can have a single and indivisible authority of the person.
The basis of the cognitive focus of the teacher's personality is spiritual needs and interests.
One of the manifestations of the spiritual forces and cultural needs of the individual is the need for knowledge and recognition of their intrinsic value. Continuity of pedagogical self-education is a necessary condition for the professional development and improvement of the teacher.
The modern teacher should be well-versed in the various branches of science, the basis of which he teaches, to know its possibilities for solving social, economic, industrial and cultural problems. But this is not enough - he must constantly be aware of new research, discoveries and hypotheses, see the near and far prospects of the pedagogical spider.
Thus, the teacher's pedagogical abilities and personal qualities play a crucial role in the success of the professional activity, are the key to his professional development and development.
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