Promotion of cultural mosaics in Canada
In analyzing Canada's official pedagogical policy, it is necessary to take into account the characteristics of the national composition of the country's population, which consists of two groups of ethnic subcultures: "legacy cultures" and explicit minorities (visible minorities ). By heritage cultures the descendants of settler settlers arriving before the beginning of the last century, as well as the natives, are the first.
To explicit minorities - representatives of the "new immigration". According to data for 1998, to "legacy cultures" (Canadian, 4 million, 2 million), Canadian Britons (5.6 million), Canadian Germans (0.9 million), Canadians (0.8 million), Canadian Italians (0, 7 million), Canadian Chinese 0.6 million), Aborigines (Inuit, Indians and Mestizos) (0.5 million), Canadian Ukrainians (0.4 million), Canadian Dutch (0.3 million), Canadian East Indians (0.3 million).
When talking about Canada's official course in education, they use comparisons such as conducting a symphony orchestra, growing a flower garden, filling a bowl with a variety of vegetables and fruits, etc. But, perhaps, the metaphorical image of the encouragement of the "cultural mosaic" is especially vividly illustrated by the official policy.
Over the last 30 years, the state course of cultural mosaic has been implemented in the sphere of education, integrating the individual into civil society on the basis of national values and cultural diversity. Normative base of such a course is a number of documents. The Constitution of 1982 enshrined citizens' freedom and the right to national and cultural expression. An important political event was the 1988 Act, in which cultural diversity was declared the "source of strength and future of Canada", a course on equality, preservation and development of cultures of all ethnic groups was proclaimed.
State pedagogical policy encourages interaction and support of representatives of different ethnic and cultural groups of the population. The official course is aimed at overcoming differences in the opportunities for acquiring education, preserving the racial and ethnic identity of all Canadians. First of all, support is provided for the linguistic competence of the inhabitants of a multilingual society. This is due to at least three circumstances: the desire to ensure the possession of two official languages (English and French); the need to preserve Aboriginal languages; desire to learn the languages of the historical homeland.
The multicultural component of official politics allows the descendants of the descendants of the Old World to preserve their cultural traditions. Their right to cultural expression is enshrined in the educational programs of most provinces. Thus, the authorities of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, British Columbia provide systematic organizational and financial assistance to the communities of Canadian Ukrainians, Italians, Germans and other "heritage cultures" In the study, except English and French, the "third language" historical homeland.
Canada's foremost peoples in the last half-century have numerically become the fastest growing ethnic part of the population. The 1982 Constitution refers to indigenous peoples (first nations
Canada), Indian tribes speaking 58 languages (800 thousand people); Métis - mostly descendants from the marriages of the English and French with Indian women in the period of the beginning of the development of the Canadian West and North (more than 210 thousand people); Inuit - residents inhabiting the coast and the islands of the Arctic Ocean (50 thousand people).
The official policy in education is aimed at the successful socialization of the aborigines, the preservation and development of their languages and cultures.
In accordance with the Aboriginal, Federal and Quebec Agreement, Inuit communities in Nunavik received the right to control education. The agreement guarantees Aboriginal access to education and allows the creation of an education system that could, on the one hand, ensure the development of their traditional culture, and on the other, integration into modern society. The agreement meant that the formation of Aboriginal peoples, carried out previously by the Western model, could be oriented towards meeting their specific socio-cultural needs. After the Nunavik Territory gained administrative independence in 1999, new opportunities appeared for the organization of Aboriginal education. The Inuit language received official status along with the English and French languages, which has a positive effect on increasing the role of indigenous peoples in society, their interest in their native culture.
A school education commission has been set up on the territory of Nunavik. The Commission defined the main goals of Inuit upbringing and education: 1) to protect and develop ethnic community, traditions and culture; 2) to form a curriculum in accordance with the wishes and abilities of students; 3) to guarantee the formation, sufficient for normal vital activity; 4) teach dialogue and cooperation with other people, raise an understanding of ownership not only of what is happening in the community, but also beyond. The commission initiated an educational policy that includes the social and cultural needs of the peoples of the North, sufficient financial support, the development of educational materials on the history, culture of the Arctic civilization, adaptation to socio-economic conditions, the acquisition of knowledge, skills and habits necessary for life in the traditional and modern society, the involvement of parents and communities in the educational process, and the introduction of continuing education. As part of this policy, the Inuit schools received stable financial support from the federal and provincial authorities. In a short time, new schools have been built in all Aboriginal communities, training programs for teachers for teaching Indians in their mother tongue in primary classes have been developed, materials have been prepared for teaching in the Inuit language at all levels of education, and adult education has been organized. The authorities of Nunavik intend to form a staff of Aboriginal people who are able to function effectively in the sphere of administration, education and culture.
A special place in the policy of multicultural education in Canada is the higher school. In the face of a shortage of cadres for higher education, mass recruitment of teachers from abroad is at the forefront. As a result, foreigners account for up to 25% of professors of higher education institutions. Canada is also increasing student admissions from abroad.
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