Providing the educational process, Goals and objectives of teaching...

3.4. Ensuring the educational process

In order to accelerate the movement towards the goal and obtain high results, the educational process must have adequate security, which includes:

- development of goals and objectives (taxonomy of goals and objectives):

- programs and plans (separate educational and educational activities);

- study books;

- tools for managing and supporting the educational process;

- diagnostics, monitoring and control tools.

According to the basic model of the educational process, the provision of this process by the teacher is teacher resources (or teaching tools), from the student's side - means (resources) of the student (si means of teaching), the subject of education also has its characteristics. The means of the teacher include the level of his qualifications, conviction, the power of pedagogical influence, and many others. Means of the student - it's his preparedness, ability to learn, ability, etc. The characteristics of the object - its number, quality, structure, etc. More details will be considered below, and now we will focus on the goals from which everything begins.

Learning objectives and objectives in the educational system

The purpose of learning is what learning seeks, what its main efforts are directed at. Aimless training, as already noted, does not happen. Regardless of whether the person is aware of the goal, whether it is close or remote, significant or not, it is always or implied. You can name the actions that a person is called upon by nature itself, for example, to learn how to walk, talk, think.

In school education (education) goals are always very clearly written out, on their achievement all the thoughts of teachers and students are concentrated. Practically in all training models the target component occupies the main place. Why this is so, do not explain. Objectives obey everything - content, methods, organizational forms, technology. The law of the goal of education, considered by us, acts just as objectively and inevitably in the system of the educational process, which is a subsystem of more general processes. The goals of education, general education flow from the goals of education, development and formation of man already known to us and correspond with them as part of the whole.

United States laws proclaim education as the basis for the spiritual, social, economic, cultural development of society and the state. General secondary education is the result of a purposeful process of mastering systematized knowledge about nature, man, society, culture and production through cognitive and practical activities. The product is the intellectual, social, physical and spiritual development of the personality as the basis for further life, education and work.

In the documents regulating educational processes in educational institutions, it is noted that general secondary education is aimed at ensuring the comprehensive development of the individual. It is achieved in a single educational process based on universal values ​​and principles of scientific, polycultural, secular education, systemic, integrative, unity of teaching and upbringing, on the basis of humanism , democracy, civic consciousness, mutual respect between nations and peoples in the interests of man, family, society, state.

The goals, set by the society and the state before the school, are high, complex and diverse. The society hopes that a well-organized school education and upbringing will ensure the further progressive development of the country. Education in the United States is aimed at the formation of an independent, free, cultural, moral personality, aware of responsibility before the family, society and the state, respecting the rights and freedoms of other citizens, the US Constitution and laws, capable of cooperation between people, peoples, various racial, national, ethnic, religious, social groups.

The main objectives of the general education school, uniform in terms of goals and accessibility for all children, diverse in meaning, forms and organization of training are:

- satisfaction of the national and cultural needs of the population, the upbringing of a physically and morally healthy generation;

- Education of a citizen and patriot, supporting the values ​​of civil society, national traditions;

- ensuring the students' learning of the knowledge system determined by social and production needs;

- meeting the requirements of the State Educational Standard of General Secondary Education;

- the formation of the personality of the student, the development of his abilities, inclinations and gifts;

- the formation of a scientific worldview, elements of political, economic, ecological, legal culture, humanistic values ​​and ideals, creative thinking, independence in the replenishment of knowledge;

- the development of young people's conscious civic position, the desire to participate in democratic self-government, responsibility for their actions, conscious performance of civic responsibilities;

- preparing pupils for further education and work;

- the education of students respect for the Constitution of the state, state symbols, authorities, laws

- realization of the right of pupils to free formation of political and ideological convictions;

- fostering respect for folk traditions and customs, the state and native languages, the national values ​​of the United States people, the values ​​of other nationalities and nations;

- education of a conscious attitude to their health and health of other citizens as the highest social value, the formation of hygienic habits and the foundations of a healthy lifestyle, maintaining and strengthening the physical and mental health of students.

Requirements for general secondary education are embodied in content training and education. The study of language, literature, history, geography, natural history, biology, music, drawing, technology, physical education helps to ensure the all-round intellectual development of students. Through the disclosure and adoption by the students of the best achievements in the material and spiritual culture of the people, their traditions, customs, rituals, crafts, folk crafts, education and spiritual development are carried out.

The federal component of school education is compulsory for studying in all types of educational institutions and all students subjects, fundamental (resident) knowledge, skills, the volume of which does not exceed 30-40 % of the total volume of subjects studied. The school component provides the opportunity to meet the diverse demands and needs of students, conditioned by regional, national, industrial and personal factors.

Goal specification

The goals of the educational process can not be identified either with the general directions of state policy in the field of public education, nor with the tasks of studying individual courses, or with the goals of educational institutions. These goals should, on the one hand, be sufficiently general, and on the other - unambiguous, clearly formulated, specific. Specific goals are promoted by special studies on their systematization and ordering - taxonomy.

One of the most famous in the world is the taxonomy of goals, compiled by American educators under the leadership of B. Bloom. There are three subgroups of learning objectives, namely: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. The taxonomy of the goals of the cognitive sphere in the abridged version contains such taxonomic names:

Cognitive Sphere:

1.00. Knowledge (information):

1.10. Knowledge of facts;

1.11. Knowledge of terminology;

1.12. Knowledge of certain facts;

1.20. Knowing how to select facts;

1.21. Knowledge of convection signs;

1.22. Knowledge of the development trend;

1.23. Knowledge of the classification;

1.24. Knowledge of verification and evaluation criteria;

1.25. Knowledge of research methods that are used in a particular area or for a particular problem;

1.30. Knowledge of common concepts, structures, theories;

1.31. Knowledge of the principles, laws necessary for the explanation and interpretation of phenomena and their foresight;

1.32. Knowledge of theory and structures;

2.00. Understanding:

2.10. Transfer content from one language (system) to another (another);

2.20. Interpretation;

2.30. Extrapolation;

3.00. Application of methods, rules, general concepts;

4.00. Analysis (division of the whole into elements):

4.10. Element Analysis;

4.20. Analysis of the principles of the organization of the whole;

5.00. Synthesis (the formation of the whole of the elements);

5.10. Creating your own work;

5.20. Development of an activity plan;

5.30. Creating an image of the whole based on incomplete data;

6.00. Evaluation of material and methods for specific purposes:

6.10. Evaluation based on internal criteria;

6.20. Evaluation based on external criteria.

From this example, we conclude that it is important to highlight specific characteristics (indicators, criteria) for achieving the goal of education (education) and how to approach this issue carefully abroad. If the goals are not specified, if there are no clear indicators that characterize them, there are no criteria, then we can speak about the achievement of these goals, the definition of the current level of their implementation only in the most general terms.

In the process of mastering knowledge , the taxonomy of B. Bloom highlights six levels characterized by the formation of cognitive processes - from the lowest to the highest. After a thorough and lengthy inspection, not all researchers agreed with this approach. More successful is the taxonomy of the goals of J. Hilbert, in which five levels of training are distinguished:

1) information, on which information can be recognized;

2) the level of analysis and synthesis on which the student can perform these operations;

3) level of understanding (awareness) of knowledge, skills;

4) the level of knowledge, skills, on which the student can apply them;

5) the level of transfer, in which the student is able to assess their knowledge (their scope, significance), understand the gaps and plan further progress in learning.

Going up the levels of training, at the first level the student acquires information knowledge, on the second level - he learns to carry out their analysis and synthesis, on the third - to understand the essence of the studied, on the fourth - to practically apply knowledge, skills, and on the fifth - to assess their importance, universality, try to apply them in another area. This approach, as we see, coincides with the general theory of development of the educational process, considered in the previous chapter.

The development of more advanced taxonomies of goals and levels of training continues. In the domestic pedagogy in this direction for a long time and very successfully working Professor VP Bespalko. The levels of training (four of them) we have already considered in the previous chapter and will be based on them in the further presentation. Recall these levels: the first - acquaintance with the material, when the student is only able to recognize something, the second - reproductive, providing the ability to simply reproduce the learned, the third - full knowledge, skills, and the fourth - transformation, i.e. the ability to transfer knowledge to new areas.

Now we turn to the question of levels targeting. There are three levels of presentation of the goals of education and upbringing (education): 1) political, where goals are understood as state policy in the field of education; 2) administrative , where goals are understood as a strategy for solving significant problems (at the level of a region or an educational institution); 3) operational, where the goals are transformed into specific tasks of the educational process implementation in the educational institution, class (Table 3).

Table 3

Targeting Levels

Goal level

Who implements

Implementation type

Political

Politicians, statesmen

Legislative acts

Administrative

Administrators, employees, education managers, inspectors

Curricula, programs

Online

Teachers

Operational tasks, pourochnye plans

So, the goals of education and education are defined with varying degrees of generalization and detail. If at the political and administrative levels only general ideas and even the declaration of intentions are bypassed, and this is enough, then at the operational (school, classroom, teacher's) level, goals are set specifically. It is necessary that they should be: 1) formulated briefly, simply and clearly; 2) unambiguously and clearly defined; 3) differentiated so that without additional explanations it was clear what was behind every word. This goal setting is called Diagnostic and opens the way for testing the achievement of the goal, measuring the results. If, for example, the goal of the lesson is the assimilation of a grammatical rule, then it is verified that exactly this goal was achieved in a given amount. If we learn to set our goals in a diagnostic way, we will essentially clarify the questions about how much and what the students can absorb, we will be able to determine the optimal volumes of the content of the teaching material, control the levels and quality of its assimilation.

How many tasks can the school solve?

You, of course, have heard about the scholastic school that prevails in medieval Europe, with the help of which the minds of schoolchildren have been honed for 12 centuries. A person who has undergone a course of scholastic training, was armed with an impeccable logic of reasoning, had a solid knowledge and convictions. And although the evaluations of scholastic learning are contradictory - from enthusiastic to blasphemous - it realized the first and main idea of ​​all learning: "put" mind of the trainee, teach him to use his main body - the brain.

The words scholasticism and school the same root - snake (from the scholastikos - school, Greek. scholi - school). For a long time, the school's task remained unchanged-to develop, exercise the brain, teach them how to use it. For this purpose, appropriate exercises were selected, and the material on which they were performed was not of decisive importance. It could be very abstract truths.

Today, the school has an incredible multitude of tasks. On the main long forgotten. Tell the modern specialist that the school should put the mind, teach the person to use his main body - the brain, and he will open his eyes in amazement, the ideas about the appointment of the school in our time have changed so much.

However, should the school decide "not its own"? task, how many and what tasks can it solve in the time allotted for training in it? On this subject ponders in the article "The foundation of ... sand" Professor A. Volkov:

... Our school programs set out to learn any schoolboy "for everything." So the phrase is asked for language: it's not a school course, it's something unbearable. ... The school program should be unloaded for a long time. Already, according to the Minister of Education .., "according to our standards, it turns out that for the development of the program the child must be engaged 167 hours a week. But in the week only 168 astronomical hours. And what can we demand of children under such a load? "

In a modern school, two dangers await any schoolboy as he grows up - apathy and rebellion ... Until education will not help a person - everyone! - to achieve success in life, he will win his place in the sun by elbows and a submachine gun. And grief to the country, where the education system is arranged meaninglessly! Such a country itself deprives itself of the future.

... The country should be healthy, educated, working. It is worth to abandon the "gross" the training of schoolchildren, from training everything to everything and anything deeply, as we will have in the price of steel, coal and bread - any work, but most of all the mind and education, the sharpness and diligence required in every matter. "

Think about

The objectives of the learning process do not always coincide with the results obtained. Goals are always higher than real achievements. By coincidence of goals and the results obtained, the effectiveness (productivity) of the educational process is determined. If this coincidence is complete, then the maximum efficiency is achieved - what was planned was achieved. And when the coincidence is incomplete, there is reason to reconsider the appropriateness of the technology used.

It is not always possible to accurately measure the products of education and education. This is also the difficulty - without real data, we can only discuss in general terms the issue of improving the effectiveness of education. The problem of reliable diagnosis of education and upbringing is very important, we will discuss it below.

In the meantime, let's think about how it is possible to quickly and accurately check the performance of the tasks?

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