4.3. Psychological and social personMost clearly the concept of a person of psychological and social emerges in KD Ushinsky's generalized work "Man as an object of education," where the scientist wrote: "If pedagogy wants to educate a person in all respects, then it must first learn it too in all relationships & quot ;. The great teacher points the way - the acquisition by teachers of accurate information on all those anthropological sciences on which the rules of pedagogical theory are based. " Their study will allow teachers to acquire comprehensive information about human nature, for the education of which they are taken. Among the most important anthropological knowledge, KD Ushinsky attributes psychological knowledge. "Reconsidering the psychic facts obtained in different theories," he writes, "we are amazed at the scarcely more extensive opportunity to have a tremendous impact on the development of the mind, feelings and will in man." "But, of course, psychology with respect to its applicability to pedagogy and its need for the teacher, takes first place (my italics - I.P . ) between all sciences .
In the first part of his work - physiological - KD Ushinsky considers the definition of the organism, describes the forces of its development, reveals the differences between individual and social organisms, to which he classifies people. He declares his decisive rejection of the "life force", which previously denoted all the causes of the development of organisms and suggests talking about an idea governing life development. In every living germ there is a creative idea that develops and is found in the organization. During its existence, the living being remains under the influence of this most creative life-force, and death comes when it can not be realized. Here, as everywhere, everything comes from an idea that alone creates and rules. " KD Ushinsky does not deny the soul - the belonging of animate beings, he only offers to distinguish it from the force of development that operates in all living organisms.Considering the essential properties of the plant organism, Ushinsky draws attention to such of them as growth, plan, organs, development forces, materials for development, the importance of the nutritional process and its conditions, the influence of the nutritional process on the degeneration of organisms. The thinker believes that this knowledge is important for teachers, especially in the organization of physical education processes.
The book then analyzes the plant organism in the animal. A distinctive feature of the animal is life and the nervous system. A detailed study of the need for and special conditions for the renewal of tissues of a living organism. The causes of fatigue and renewal of forces, the conditions for the correct renewal of the organism are analyzed. From them are deduced the basis of physical education of man. For good learning, it is important: 1) a change in activity and 2) a full-fledged sleep. "That is why upbringing, caring for the harmonious development of the human body, must manage and sleep."
Chapters 6-10 analyze the nervous system and sense organs:
- the organ of vision and its activity;
- separation of the nervous system into centers, branches and endings;
- the physical basis of vision;
- the device of the eye;
- the organ of hearing;
- the activity of the auditory organ;
- harmony of sounds and development of hearing;
- the organ of smell, its structure and activity;
- the organ of taste and its connection with sensations of smell and touch;
- the organ of touch and its activity;
- muscles, muscular feeling;
- the organ of voice and the ability of articulate sounds;
- the nervous system, its center and branching;
- the activity of the nervous system and its composition.
To. D. Ushinsky at a high level summarized the results of scientific research in this field and brought to the arena pedagogy of a holistic physiological person with all its advantages and disadvantages. "It is highly probable," he writes, "that the organ by which our soul experiences various states of the nervous system is the brain, and not all of it, but only that part of it called the big brain. But everything that is known about a large brain that does not differ in anything either in its anatomical structure or in its chemical composition from other nerve centers, does not explain to us in any way the possibility of the independent generation in it of the sensations and motives of voluntary movements. "
The correct activity of the nervous system is very important. Nervous fatigue, nervous irritation are constant companions of poorly organized learning.
The transition from physiology to psychology KD Ushinsky begins with the consideration of reflexes. Reflex activity lies at the basis of habits, and the development of right habits is an important goal of all upbringing. A habitual action is a reflex action, just as much as it is customary. Habits and skills, as acquired reflexes, provide stable human behavior in everyday habitual situations. Thanks to them, the vast importance of habits in human activity often becomes decisive. In this regard, proper education should be aimed at the formation of useful habits. The mechanism of formation of habits is known and reduces to repeated exercises, fixing behavior at the desired level.
To. Ushinsky comes to the conclusion that it is possible to inherit habits and their connection with instincts and characters. Now it becomes clear by itself why our soul can choose with particular preference those activities, thoughts, aspirations, feelings, inclinations, bodily movements, facial features for which one already finds training in the nervous system. The soul continuously searches for activities and from the two activities that it represents selects one that is easier for the organism to which the organism is more prepared hereditarily. " A good habit is a moral capital placed by a person in his nervous system.
According to Ushinsky, there are two types of memory - animal and spiritual. Attributing an act of memory only to the nervous system, researchers make a mistake. It is necessary to give to the body everything that belongs to the body, and to the soul everything that belongs to the soul. The spiritual memory of which Fichte speaks, of course, is, but there is also the unequal memory that physiology speaks about.
Note that the naturalness with which Ushinsky speaks of the soul as an integral force of man, constantly associating with it everything, something happens to him. It is not possible to explain anything without the presence of vitality. Perhaps, therefore, the reasoning of the teacher of United States teachers on this topic was bypassed, and from his works only practical advice was taken.
The transition from physiology to psychology KD Ushinsky begins by analyzing the relation of the soul to the nervous organism. The ratio in which the soul is placed on the nervous system is one of the greatest mysteries of creation ... Now, at least, it is clear to us that the nervous organism is the inevitable link and the only mediator between the external world and the soul ... & quot ;. The scientist refuses from the established system of exposition of psychic phenomena and offers his system - didactic, maximally adapted to pedagogy. The division of mental phenomena into phenomena of consciousness, feeling and will is carried out under the recognition of a special substrate of psychic phenomena. Thus, we will have in our anthropology three main departments: the department ... of the bodily organism, to the second department dedicated to the psychic phenomena, proceed now, and the third department, the department of the spiritual phenomena, we will finish our psychology ".
Consciousness manifests itself in various mental processes: in the process of attention, memory, imagination and reason. Attention belongs to the soul. Similarly, it belongs to both consciousness and sensation. The recall can be mechanical or mental. Associations for the heart sense also exist. Now scientists record them according to the strength of energy excitation.
Soul and memory - are inseparable. We are what we remember. Only what we keep within us, we can recycle further: develop into higher spiritual forms and apply to life. Remembering, imagining and thinking are not the same thing. The process of imagination takes place in the form of single representations, and the process of thinking in the form of concepts. Hence another definition of man: he can form concepts, and the animal - no.
The influence of the spiritual features of a person on the rational process is expressed in the fact that ideas and words, being the basis of this process, completely unite in the rational process, from which a great variety of conclusions arise, to separate out among which the right and wrong are not possible. Man is guided by reason and reason. Reason is the principle of science, and reason is the principle of practical life.
KD Ushinsky considers the movement of all mental processes in an indissoluble connection with the society. He does not think of man outside of human society and repeatedly emphasizes the influence of the latter on human development, on the dependence of the results of this development on the level of the state of society, on the degree of involvement of a person in social activity and production.
Concluding his work, KD Ushinsky once again emphasizes the importance of knowledge of the psychological and social, which he considers in unity with the spiritual and spiritual, for the correct education of youth. If the knowledge that we possess will be reasonably used by the mentors of the younger generations, then the benefit will be greater for the fatherland and for each person.
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