Psychological Foundations of Problem Learning
Psychological sources of the idea of problem learning
Problem training as an independent psycho-pedagogical direction began to develop intensively in United States pedagogical psychology and educational practice in the middle of the 20th century. Its development is associated with the names of many famous Soviet scientists (AV Brushlinsky, ZI Kalmykova, VA Krutetskii, TV Kudryavtsev, AM Matyushkin, MI Makhmutov, Ya.A. Ponomarev, SL Rubinshtein, and others). For problematic teaching, the central task was the development of productive creative thinking of students in the learning process.
The basic ideas of problem training go back to the achievements in the field of the psychology of thinking at the beginning of the 20th century. We are talking about studies that led to a critical rethinking of ideas about thinking, as a reproductive process, which dominated in associative psychology.
In studies of behaviorists and, to a greater extent, in the experimental work of representatives of Gestalt psychology, it has been shown that thinking is a productive process. As is known, Gestalt psychology offered its own theoretical and experimental model of the process of thinking. The central part of this model was the concepts of the problem situation and the process of its solution. From this point of view, the representatives of Gestalt psychology analyzed and experimentally studied the thinking of animals (V. Keller), the thinking of children (K. Koffka), the thinking of the student (M. Wertheimer, L. Sekei) and the scientist (M. Wertheimer).
Problem situations arise not only in training. A person is confronted with them constantly in the most diverse spheres of his life activity. The main sign of the problematic situation is the objective impossibility of satisfying ordinary needs in customary, automated ways.
Thus, the situation is considered problematic if the individual who finds himself in it can not achieve his goal by methods known to him. He can not rely on familiar rules of thinking or behavior. As a result, the search activity mechanism comes into play. This activity can be oriented in two directions:
a) changing the situation itself;
b) changing their attitude towards it.
According to AM Matyushkin, three stages can be distinguished in the development of ideas for problem training:
The first stage is associated with the intensive development of methods for activating students in learning.
The second stage is the search for forms of stimulating students' cognitive independence. As a result, effective methods were developed that ensure not only the episodic activity of students, but also their relative independence in "getting" knowledge.
The third stage of the development of problematic learning is related to the development of questions of providing opportunities for productive (creative) activity of students in the learning process.
Alexei Mikhailovich Matyushkin (1927-2004) - a famous Soviet and United States psychologist. His life was filled with many bright events. This is the military service during the Great Patriotic War in the regiment of bomber aviation, and training at Moscow State University. M. Lomonosov, where the head of his thesis work, and later his Ph.D. thesis became SL Rubinstein, and the subsequent defense of his doctoral dissertation on problem situations in thinking and learning.
In the late 1980's. Alexey Mikhailovich headed the Institute of General and Pedagogical Psychology of the APN USSR (later PI RAO). AM Matyushkin entered the history of United States psychology primarily as an expert in the field of thinking psychology. He was one of the most active developers of ideas for problem training. In the late XX - early XX century. his attention was focused on the study of problems of psychology of giftedness and creativity.
The solution to these problems went on two main lines:
1) the introduction of research methods in the learning process;
2) the creation in the teaching of conditions that cause and ensure the productive, creative assimilation of new knowledge.
In the first case, the main task of learning was the development of special, cognitive tasks that can be solved with the help of research methods of teaching. The second line involved the development of tasks that caused problematic situations. It was about creating conditions that provide for the discovery of a new (subjectively new) knowledge in various types of problem situations. In educational practice, these lines often intersect and complement each other.
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