Psychological foundations of artistic education - Pedagogical psychology

Psychological foundations of artistic education

Art education is an integral part of aesthetic education of the individual. The goal of artistic education is the upbringing and development of the artistic culture of the individual. Art culture is considered as part of the overall aesthetic culture of the individual. The main objectives of artistic education can be expressed in the following list:

- education of artistic interests and needs;

- education of artistic tastes and ideals;

- the formation of artistic experience of the individual (the creation and perception of works of art);

- the upbringing and development of artistic abilities.

Mimesis and art fiction

The word mimesis in translation from ancient Greek - imitation, reproduction, and also it can be translated as image, display, reflection, copying, designation. So called in ancient Greece, the creative principle, which is the basis of all arts. According to Democritus, art came from the imitation of man by nature: weaving - from imitation of the spider; construction - from imitation of a building that builds a swallow; singing was born of a man's desire to imitate birds, etc. According to the teachings of Plato and Aristotle, imitation is the basis of any artistic creativity. Therefore, art is usually imitated by the objects and phenomena of the material world. This, in Plato's opinion, explains its imperfection, because the very objects of the visible world are only weak shadows of the world of ideas.

In the future, in aesthetics and art, the principle of the mimesis was interpreted in different ways: as an illusory-photographic imitation of the visible forms of material objects and life situations (naturalism, hyperrealism, photorealism, etc.); as a conditionally generalized expression of typical images, characters, actions, everyday life (realism); as imitation of some initially ideal principles, ideas, archetypes (romanticism, symbolism, etc.).

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A certain contradiction in the artists' striving for imitation is the craving for art fiction that is equally vivid in art of all ages. An integral part of any true work of art is artistic fiction. Art fiction is understood as creative construction, modeling, production of imaginable, represented images, phenomena, life events in artistically convincing forms. The value of real art is that the viewer is practically unable to notice the fact of fiction. The facts of the impression, the images of the external world are important for the artist not in themselves, in their objective reality, they are only a means and an opportunity to express a certain set of ideas, experiences, value relationships to life that motivates him to work on a work. The plot, the plot, the theme, the composition, the characters of the work are usually the fruit of artistic fiction, author's fantasies. Paradoxically, it is often thanks to fiction that the effect of the authenticity of artistic images is achieved. With its help, art is able to expand the horizons of everyday life of a person, open those of its faces, which usually do not stop the attention.

Artistic image

Artistic images, or subjective copies of objective reality, are created through the action of two fundamental principles: mimesis and artistic fiction. The artistic image is the basis, the goal, the essential core, the mode of being of the work of art.

If the abstract verbal-analytic designation of an object is turned to reason, then the artistic image is addressed to the soul. He represents the inner sight of man in an object in all its many-valued semantic essence, in the fullness of his real connections with reality. The artistic image is created with the help of colors, shapes, sounds, words, but by nature it is ideal and lives in the space of "artwork - the psyche of the subject of perception."

Through the artistic image, the world comes to know the means of art. In this way man is able to discover truths that can not be comprehended in any other way.

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