Psychological Foundations of Didactics - Theory of Learning

Psychological Foundations of Didactics

As a result of studying the chapter, the student must:


• the main cognitive processes and their role in learning;

• types of sensations, properties of perception, didactic value of perception;

• Characteristics of attention and its role in managing cognitive activity of trainees;

• features and patterns of memory processes;

• the basic mental operations and types of thinking;

• psychological characteristics and functions of speech;

• the essence of the imagination as the higher cognitive process;

• the essence and main features of needs;

• motivational characteristics of learning activities;

• the motivational significance of cognitive interest and its essential features;

be able to

represent the specific functions of the cognitive and motivational spheres in providing the educational process;

• highlight the types of attention in cognitive activity;

• characterize the operational components of thinking;

• distinguish between psychological forms and types of speech;

• characterize the main types and techniques of the imagination;

• highlight the main stages of creative activity;

• establish similarities and differences in the interpretation of needs and motives;

• characterize the types of educational motivation;


a general picture of the effect of various cognitive processes in the field of learning;

• parameters that describe the scope of memory;

• the main conditions for the development of the imagination in the learning process;

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• the ability to describe the phenomenology of learning motives;

• Requirements for the construction of educational technologies aimed at providing learning motivation.

Effective and harmonious learning is possible on the basis of taking into account the mental development of students, understanding the laws and features of the course of mental processes in the logic of the integral formation of the trainee's personality. Developing various technologies and methods of teaching, didactics seeks first of all to ensure their close connection with the child's psyche, so as to involve the whole complex process of cognition and the sphere of socio-cultural development in the learning process. Among the whole variety of phenomena and processes that are studied by psychology, two spheres of psychological development - the sphere of cognitive processes and need-motivational sphere . These areas are in close conjugation and open different sides of the unified educational process. If in the first sphere the content-structural basis of effective teaching is localized, the second sphere reflects the dynamic-procedural aspect of the teaching, the internal mechanism for solving the main task of didactics is the formation of the learning activity of the students.

Cognitive processes in training constitute the main area of ​​application of the efforts of didactics. If to present training as a constant process of versatile circulation of culture and society to the individual, then as the main "guide" This circulation will be the sphere of cognitive processes. Traditionally, the following basic cognitive processes are distinguished in psychology: sensation and perception, attention, memory, thinking and speech, imagination.

Sensations are considered to be the simplest of all psychic phenomena and represent the processes of reflection of individual properties, attributes of objects and phenomena of the surrounding world, directly affecting the senses at a given moment. Due to sensations, the human consciousness is provided by a strong connection with the surrounding world. Sensations allow us to judge also about the changes taking place in our own body, about the work of internal organs. Back in the XVII century. MV Lomonosov noted that the source of knowledge is the testimony of the sense organs, verified by experience.

The nature of the sensations is related to the reflex activity of analyzers in response to the action of stimuli (MI Sechenov, IP Pavlov) and is a complex neurophysiological process of converting the energy of external stimulation into a fact of consciousness. A very important role in the development of sensations is the work of a person.

In order to feel the sensation, the stimulus must reach a certain value. The minimum amount of stimulus at which the sensation first appears is called the absolute threshold of sensation . A relative , or difference, threshold is also allocated, reflecting the minimum change in intensity of the stimulus in the form of a change in the quality of sensation. This sensitivity to discrimination, as BG Ananiev notes, is the source of a complex thought process-comparisons. In the development of distinctive sensitivity, an exceptional role belongs to the word. The improvement of the differential sensitivity in children is inextricably linked with the development of speech in the learning process.

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The most important types of sensations are visual, auditory, vibrational, olfactory, gustatory, dermal, tactile, static, kinesthetic, organic.

Different types of sensitivity can be developed as a result of specially organized exercises. For the all-round development of the personality, a purposeful education of the various sensitivity systems of each student is necessary. This is facilitated by many subjects, the most important place among which is occupied by singing, drawing, work, physical culture.

Perception is a cognitive process in which the reflection of objects and phenomena is realized in their inseparable integrity, the totality of their properties and parts when they directly affect the senses.

The types of perception, as well as sensations, are distinguished on the basis of the dominant analyzer (visual perception, auditory perception, tactile perception). Complex types of perception are observed if several different analyzers are mobilized equally intensively. So, during the lesson with the use of modern information technologies or the demonstration of educational videos, schoolchildren have visual and auditory perception.

Characteristic properties of perception are such functions as objectivity, integrity, selectivity, meaningfulness and generalization.

The object of perception is the direct reflection of real objects and phenomena of the surrounding world. Integrity of perception means that, when perceiving an object, a person recognizes it as a single whole having a certain structure. Each part that enters into the image of perception acquires significance only when it is related to the whole and is determined by it. The selectivity of perception consists in the initial allocation of a person from a huge number of influences of only a few that meet his interests, attitudes, needs, values. In psychology this property is explained by the action of the law "figures and background". In the process of teaching the teacher it is important to take into account the experience and knowledge of the student, the direction of his interests, the availability of facilities for the perception of the material. Meaningfulness of perception is an ability, reflecting an object, immediately determine its essence, purpose. When we perceive an object, we can accurately name it or say that it reminds us of what it serves or what it is connected with. The generalization of perception is the reflection of any single case or object as a special manifestation of a general series of cases or class of objects. This assignment is ensured by the inclusion of speech in the process of perception. Generality is the highest manifestation of awareness of human perception.

Depending on the purposefulness of the activity, the perception is divided into involuntary (unintentional) and arbitrary (intentional).

The following are the main types of perception: synthetic, analytical, analytical-synthetic and emotional. People with synthetic type of perception have a pronounced tendency to generalize the reflection of phenomena and to determine the basic meaning of what is happening. They do not attach importance to details and do not like to go into them. People of the analytical type are less inclined to generalize the characteristics of phenomena of reality. They seek to isolate and analyze primarily the details. People with analytical-synthetic type perception equally find a desire to understand the basic meaning of the phenomenon and its actual confirmation. They always correlate the analysis of individual parts with conclusions. In the emotional type of perception, the objective reflection of the surrounding reality is replaced by excessive attention to one's experiences.

In the process of teaching, it is important for the teacher to develop the observance of his students. Observation is the ability to notice characteristic, but subtle, features of objects and phenomena. It is acquired in the process of systematic occupation by a favorite business and is therefore associated with the development of the interests of the individual.

The didactic meaning of sensations and perceptions is most adequately and fully revealed in the principle of the visual clarity of learning. The book of the founder of didactics YA A. Komensky is an example of a brilliant example of the methodological embodiment and development of the principle of visibility. The world of sensible things in pictures .

In teaching, the teacher needs to carefully prepare the students for the perception of the objects being studied, to provide the necessary information about them, which can facilitate and direct students' perceptions towards highlighting their most important features. Demonstration of visual aids, carrying out laboratory works and excursions only reach the goal when the students are clearly aware of their task.

An important place in the didactic provision of the educational process belongs to the development of attention. Evaluating the role of attention in teaching, KD Ushinsky noted that "attention is precisely the door through which passes everything that enters the human soul from the outside world."

Attention as the cognitive process is closely related to the direction and volitional properties and is the concentration of consciousness on a specific object, ensuring its selective and especially clear reflection. In connection with the strong-willed effort of man, three types of attention are distinguished: involuntary, arbitrary and post-accidental.

Involuntary attention - this is the concentration of consciousness on the object due to the peculiarity of the latter as an irritant. General psychological principles of constructing a lesson on which involuntary attention is supported by interest are the following: the content of the material presented in fascinating form, the variety of forms and methods of work, the teacher's enthusiasm for the material presented, the liveliness and emotional richness of the lesson.

Arbitrary attention is consciously regulated concentration on the object, guided by the requirements of the activity. The highest stage of voluntary attention is the ability of the student to be guided by independently set goals. The development of voluntary attention is closely linked with the development of responsibility for schoolchildren for mastering knowledge.

After-attention - focusing on the object because of its value to the individual. It arises on the basis of the interest and direction of the individual. In after-care attention, volitional tension decreases and focused concentration on the object occurs effortlessly for an extended period.

In the didactic plan, the art of the teacher in the classroom largely lies in his ability to translate students from the state of voluntary attention in post-production so as to cause them to work independently on the basis of interest.

Depending on the forms of educational activities organized by the teacher, you can select collective, group and individual attention.

In the process of learning, a full-fledged functioning and development of memory plays an important role. In a sense, learning itself relies on and uses the abilities of the mnemic sphere of students, and the effectiveness of learning is sometimes directly identified with the strength and volume of mastering the teaching material.

Memory is a complex cognitive process that consists of the following constituent processes: remembering, saving and playing information, and forgetting.

The variety of mnemic actions is reflected in the classifications of various types of memory. So, in terms of the content of the material that is memorized, the shaped (visual, auditory, motor, etc.), verbal-logical and emotional memory memory for feelings). According to the duration of information preservation, there are: genetic, autobiographical, long-term, short-term, operational, instantaneous (tonic) memory, and sensory register (impression at the level of sense organs)

Let us dwell briefly on the characteristics of the main processes of memory.

Remembering occurs in three forms: capture, involuntary memorization, arbitrary memorization.

1. Imprinting - a strong and accurate preservation in the short-term and long-term memory of events as a result of a single presentation of the material for a few seconds.

2. Involuntary memorization - storing events in memory as a result of repeated repetition.

3. Arbitrary memorization is the leading one in man. It arose in labor activity, in communication and is associated with the need to preserve knowledge, skills for life. In teaching, when there is a lot of memorized material, a person resorts to memorization. Learning is memorization in order to preserve some material in memory.

There are some patterns of memorization:

1) the dependence of remembering on the goal that the person has placed. A goal that is more meaningful emotionally or practically, promotes a strong memorization;

2) the dependence of memorization on the means of presenting the material. At present, not only traditional visibility, but also modern means of mass communication used for teaching purposes (video, computer facilities, multimedia, etc.) is becoming more and more popular in school. In connection with this, the share of images in the transfer of knowledge has sharply increased;

3) the dependence of memorization on the logical structure of the material. Logical organization of the material is an indispensable prerequisite for success in memorization;

4) the dependence of memorization on the organization of the learning process. This pattern manifests itself in a well-thought-out sequence of memorizing and distributing the learned material in time.

Saving is a more or less lengthy retention in the memory of information obtained in the experience. Conservation has two sides: actual preservation and forgetting. For the best preservation of knowledge, there are a number of established methods. Repeat the material should be a short time after its perception.

Reproduction - recreate the activity and communication of the stored material. There are several levels of playback. Recognition is the reproduction when relied on the perception of an object. The actual reproduction is the reconstruction of the material, which does not cause difficulties and does not require support on perception. Remembrance is a reproduction in which there is currently no way to remember what is needed, but there is a certainty that it is remembered.

In education, there are significant differences in children in terms of the level of development of individual types of memory: verbal, figurative and emotional. Word-logical memory - memory for knowledge in speech form, logic schemes, mathematical symbols. Visual memory - memory for views. In emotional memory, feelings and experiences are captured.

Allocate visual, auditory, motor memory and consider the level of their development separately. In terms of development, olfactory, taste and other types of memory are distinguished. If the student remembers better, reading to himself, then he has developed visual memory. If the student remembers better when he hears what he read, then he has a auditory type of memory. Visual-motor memory is well developed in the student, who competently writes, but does not know the rules of grammar.

Identify certain parameters of the mnemic sphere of the personality.

The amount of memory - the ability to remember a certain number of unrelated information after the first presentation. It is equal to the magic number of Miller - 7 ± 2. The number of positions in the lesson plan, the number of newly introduced terms should be coordinated with the amount of short-term memory. Accuracy of memory - the ability without distortion, in the same words, to reproduce information. Mobility readiness of memory is the ability to recall the right material at the moment.

Among the personal features of memory, a special place is occupied by memories. Recollection is the reproduction in the memory of events of a person's life path. Representation - the image of an object or phenomenon that does not affect the senses at the moment.

The construction of educational activities and its formation is undoubtedly associated with the development of the thinking processes of students.

Thinking is the higher cognitive process that provides a person's generalized reflection of reality in its essential relationships and relationships.

Thinking is of an indirect nature, i.e. is accomplished with the help of a whole system of means, which, as a rule, are absent at the sensory stage of cognition. Reflection of reality at the level of thinking is indirect and generalized, which provides an opportunity for a person to understand both the phenomena themselves and their essence. Disclosure of the essence of the phenomenon occurs by including it in various systems of connections and relations.

Content components of thinking are logically formed into various concepts, judgments, inferences. Knowledge, obtained as a result of logical cognition, exists in the form of concepts.

Components of thinking are mental operations of analysis, synthesis, comparison, abstraction, generalization, classification, systematization. Function analysis is the division of the whole into parts, the selection of individual characteristics, the sides of the whole. Synthesis serves as a means of combining individual elements that are highlighted in the analysis. With the help of comparison , the similarity and difference of individual objects are established. Abstraction provides the selection of some features and distraction from others. Generalization is a means of combining objects or phenomena according to their essential characteristics and properties. Classification is aimed at the separation and subsequent merging of objects for some reason. Systematization provides separation and subsequent unification, but not individual objects, as happens in the classification, but their groups, classes.

Depending on the content of the problem being solved, it is customary in psychology to distinguish three types of thinking: practically-effective, visually-figurative and verbal-logical. Practically-effective thinking is characterized by the fact that the thinking task is solved directly in the process of activity. Visual-shaped thinking is different in that the content of a mental task is based on a figurative material. The peculiarity of verbal-logical thinking is that the problem is solved in a verbal (verbal) form. It is this kind of thinking that makes it possible to establish the most general laws that determine the development of nature and society, of man himself, and most generally solve mental problems.

The development of thinking in the process of learning activities represents the most important task of schooling.

The current level of development of society and information processes requires the formation of sustainable intellectual abilities and skills of intensive mental activity, rapid orientation and self-determination in a dynamic information world.

Psychologists, who worked under the guidance of V. V. Davydov, showed the advantages of developing theoretical thinking in learning, which is characterized by a number of interrelated components, such as:

- Reflection, i.e. comprehension of the child's own actions and their compliance with the conditions of the problem;

- an analysis of the content of the task in order to highlight the principle or the general way of solving it, which then, as it were, "from the place" is transferred to a whole class of similar tasks;

is an internal plan of action that ensures their planning and execution in the mind.

The cognitive development of students in learning and the process of learning itself is largely mediated by speech activity.

Speech and the word are the most important content and structural components of the psyche. Speech functions on the basis of language. Language is defined as a system of signs acting as a means of communication and a tool of thought. The development of the speech of the child has several aspects. The first aspect is the development of phonemic hearing and the formation of skills for pronouncing the phonemes of the native language. The second aspect is mastering the vocabulary and syntax rules, which begins with the second year of life, when the child pronounces individual words for communication purposes. The third aspect is the mastery of the semantic (semantic side) of the language.

Speech performs important functions in the process of cognition - the significative function, the function of generalization and the communicative function. In order for a word to be able to communicate something, it must mean, to name an object, an action, a state, etc. This is the first function of speech, called significative. The function generalization is that the word denotes not only a separate given object, but a whole group of similar objects; it is always the bearer of their essential attributes. The communicative function acts as an external speech behavior aimed at communicating with other people, it has three sides: informative, expressive and will expression.

The physiological basis of speech is the activity of the second signal system (according to IP Pavlov). The irritant of this signal system is not objects and their properties, but words.

There are two forms of speech: external and internal. External speech includes several psychologically distinct kinds of speech: oral (dialogical and monologic) and written. Inner speech (speech "about yourself") is speech without sound design that serves the thinking process, it is distinguished by its coarseness.

The most important type of speech is oral dialogical speech. Dialogue - the exchange of remarks, opinions with each other about the events taking place. The use of dialogue in the learning process becomes a powerful didactic tool that stimulates the student's cognition and development.

Monologic speech is a long, coherent, coherent exposition of a system of thoughts, knowledge by one person. It takes place in the form of a report, a story, lectures, speeches. The initial form of the monologue is an oral story. The development of knowledge, the need for the transfer of scientific information about the world have developed a specific form of monologue - a lecture. Forms of monological speech are also a report and a speech. The report is a thoughtful oral report on a specific issue, based on the communication of factual material and its generalization.

Written speech appeared later orally. The first stage in the development of written speech was called ideographic writing (the imprint of the event in the figure). Later a hieroglyphic letter arose. In hieroglyphs - signs of objects - the similarity to objects is lost, but they denote objects or whole thoughts.

Among the higher cognitive processes, the imagination plays the leading role in shaping the creative orientation of the personality of students and their creative abilities. It lies at the basis of the abilities of anticipation, fantasy, anticipation, etc.

Imagination is the highest cognitive process of creating images of objects, products of activity, circumstances by bringing the available knowledge of a person to a new qualitative combination in the face of uncertainty of the actual problem situation.

Imagination consists in a mental retreat beyond the immediate perceived, contributes to the anticipation of the future, revives the experience and information obtained earlier in the new context of cognition.

There are two types of imagination - recreating and creative. If the first species is associated mainly with objective reality, then the second goes beyond the current situation. Creative imagination is the creation of a new, original image, idea.

It is customary to distinguish between several methods of creating creative images.

The simplest is This technique consists in taking parts of two or more objects, processes, and merging, glued together so that the image of the new object is obtained.

The method of creating creative images is the analogy. Its essence is that an image is constructed that resembles something that actually exists, a living organism, an action.

Creative images are created with the help of accentuation and exaggeration (understatement).

The most complex method of creative imagination is typing. This is a complex process of decomposition and connection, as a result of which a visible image crystallizes out. Like the imagination, typing closely resembles thinking, and it is almost difficult to dissect them in the act of creating a typical image.

Imagination is an essential part of creative activity, the logic of which consists of the following stages.

Stage 1 - the origin of the idea.

Stage 2 - concentration, contraction knowledge, directly and indirectly related to this problem, obtaining missing information.

Stage 3 - conscious and unconscious work on the material, decomposition and connection, search of options, insight.

Stage 4 - check and update.

A successful learning process relies heavily on children's imagination and contributes to its development. As Davydov's research shows, imagination generates a need for educational activity in children 6-7 years of age. Imagination is always the ability to embrace the whole before particulars. Therefore, in education, it is necessary to disclose the general concepts of the phenomenon before its particular properties and manifestations. Students need to show not the answer itself, but to demonstrate its genesis, to push the child to search for the conditions of origin of objects. Didactically, this is expressed in the disclosure to the student of the process of origin of phenomena and objects, in understanding their meaning and relationship with other processes. Hence the basic didactic requirement for learning from imagination is not to give ready knowledge, as ready knowledge narrows the imagination, dulls its possibilities and development. This is also important because imagination is the basis of reflection.

As studies show, the development of the imagination is provided by the following series of didactic conditions:

- teaching theoretical knowledge and problematizing learning;

- the use of deductive logic in the construction of learning content;

- use of dialog-discussion forms of learning;

- conjugation of exact objects with art and art history.

The human needs-motivational sphere as a source of mental activity constitutes the initial basis of learning, acting as a determining factor in the formation of educational motivation.

Requirements represent a state of need in something. Human activities are always directed to meet one or another need. Therefore, the life and development of a person can be described as an uninterrupted sequence and sequence of different needs being replaced by each other. AN Leontiev notes some of the special features inherent in all needs. First, their objectivity. The need always has its object, it always has a need for something (in this or that thing, in this or that result of the activity, etc.). The second feature is that every need acquires a specific content, depending on what conditions and in what way it is satisfied. This environmental conditioning is important in terms of education and training of the individual. The third feature indicates that the same needs have the ability to arise again, reproduce. Reproduction of needs is the most important condition for their formation and development: only by reproducing, the need is enriched in its content. The fourth feature relates to the development of needs, which occurs by changing the range of objects that satisfy them, and ways to meet them.

The world of human needs is very diverse. Different types of needs are distinguished for different reasons: for the object (material, biological, social, spiritual, ethical, aesthetic, etc.), in importance (dominant and secondary, central and peripheral), in duration (stable and situational), functional level (natural and higher), in the spheres of activity (biological, labor, cognition, communication, recreation, etc.).

Studies of LI Bozhovich, VV Davydov, AA Lyublinskaya, AK Markova, MV Matyukhina, . F. Talyzina, GI Shchukina and other authors showed that the motivation associated with the content and process of learning is cognitive. As N. Talyzina explains, "... the teaching by its very nature is recognized to satisfy the cognitive need. "

Human needs are subjectively experienced in the form of desires or drives. By signaling the emergence of a need or its satisfaction, desires, drives regulate a person's activity, causing its occurrence and amplifying or quenching her.

At the same time, the existence of a need and its direct, sensory reflection (desire, attraction) is not enough to make the activity happen. For this, an object is needed, which, responding to the needs, would be the motivator of the activity, would give it a certain specific focus. The fact that, reflected in the mind, induces activity, directs it to satisfy a certain need, is called a motive.

The motif , according to the definition of AN Leontiev, is the motivation for action, for which the student does this or that activity. In the semantic concept of thinking of O. Tikhomirov, the structuring function of the motive in thinking is revealed. This means that the motive not only stimulates thought activity and gives it a personal meaning, but also organizes it, structures it.

According to the position of the Polish didactics V. Okonya, the learning process can be viewed from two sides: operational and motivational. The operational side, as the scientist notes, includes the development of students' theoretical knowledge and practical skills necessary for cognition and transformation of reality.

The motivational side is the driving force of any human activity, and therefore, of any kind of study. The effectiveness of education depends on learning motivation .

Complex activities usually do not meet one, but several simultaneously acting motives. A vivid example of such activities can be learning activities . For example, one student has the main motive of the exercise - to prepare himself for the future activity, the other - to get a satisfactory mark to avoid trouble. In the first case, the student, naturally, will strive to delve into what is being studied, for the purpose of a correct understanding of reality and for practical activity. In the second case, attitudes toward learning can easily become formal, purely "scholastic" - just to answer in class. The formation of full-fledged motives for teaching is therefore a very serious didactic task.

Studies of educational motives show that they are not the same both in their general nature and in the role they play. One kind of motivation for learning activities is broad generalized motives for learning (for example, to get an education, prepare yourself for future activity, etc.). Motives of a different kind - are motives private, narrow (for example, get encouragement, avoid punishment). The first motives are more stable, they act for a long time and depend little on the situation that is happening at the moment. The second motives show their action relatively briefly and depending on the circumstances and direct influences (for example, on the part of the teacher).

When broad and private motives act simultaneously in learning, they form a single system, playing a different role: broad, generalized motives mainly impart a certain meaning to the student's actions, while the motives of the second kind are primarily a direct motivation for action .

In general, the pedagogical task is to educate necessarily and broad, generalized and, moreover, significant motives, not only directly inducing actions, but also communicating a certain meaning of the activity performed.

H. F. Talyzina shares motives for learning activities on external and internal. External motives are not related to the acquired knowledge and performed activities . In this case, the teaching serves as a means for the student to achieve other goals. The goal of the training activity is the acquisition of knowledge, this activity itself does not allow any other goal. But if the student does not have a need for this knowledge, the attainment of this goal seems meaningless if it does not satisfy some other need, but not directly, but indirectly.

Thus, the teaching can have a different psychological meaning for the student: a) meet the cognitive need, which also acts as a motive for learning; b) serve as a means to achieve other goals. In this case, the motive for doing the learning activity is this other goal. Outwardly, the activity of all students is similar, internally, psychologically, it is very different.

In content the motives of N. Talyzin's theory are divided into: 1) educational and cognitive, connected with the material itself and the learning process; 2) broad social, connected with the whole system of the student's life relations (sense of duty, self-improvement, self-determination, prestige, prosperity, avoidance of trouble, etc.). In the process of learning, gradually the cognitive needs of students undergo significant changes. Some of them become stable personality traits, motives for its behavior, others disappear.

A large place in the motivation of training is occupied by the mark. However, according to Sh. A. Amonashvili's data, the marked motivation requires special attention of the teacher, as it conceals the danger of formation of selfish motives, negative personality traits.

As the decisive moment in the formation of educational motivation is the developmental factor in the students of cognitive interests . Ya. A. Komensky, as an indispensable condition for mastering the students, believed that they had an interest and attention to teaching. He offered to use all means to arouse the student's thirst for knowledge and gave a number of specific instructions on this question: it is necessary to explain to students the meaning of what they are learning, the benefits that their knowledge will bring to them, to encourage children's curiosity, to try to make learning easy, enjoyable for students. KD Ushinsky wrote that "covet" man to teaching - a much more worthy task than to force. And in the pedagogical system of the Belgian teacher O. Decrolli, the essence of learning is directly related to the satisfaction of interests. Decrolli suggested a method of teaching that he called complexes- "centers of interest."

Physiologically, interest is based on an exploratory reflex. IP Pavlov called it the reflex "What is?", Manifested in curiosity.

GI Shchukin attributes the following to the essential signs of cognitive interest:

a) the intellectual orientation of the search for a new in the object, the desire to get acquainted with the subject closer, to learn it deeply and versatile;

b) the child's conscious attitude to the subject of his interest and to the task before him in the knowledge of this subject;

c) emotional coloration: interest is always associated with the desire to learn something, the joy of seeking, the bitterness of failure and the triumph of discovery;

d) expression in willful action: interest directs a person's efforts to discover new sides and attributes of an object.

As noted by N.N. F. Talyzin, the development of the motives of the teaching is carried out in two ways: 1) through the students' assimilation of the social meaning of the doctrine; 2) through the very activity of the schoolchild's teaching, which should be of some interest to him.

Under the conditions of experimental training conducted under the guidance of DB Elkonin, VV Davydov, AK Markova, NA Menchinskaya, and others, when special attention is paid to the origin, meaning, essence of phenomena, very the interest in mastering the very method of action can be clearly manifested. It has been shown that in teaching it is important to operate not so much with particular information and phenomena as by the methods of cognitive actions, the mastering of which leads the students to master the concept, to the discovery of the essential semantic connections and relations of the studied subject.

One of the effective tools that contribute to cognitive motivation is the learning problem , although it requires dosed application. Training of the new material, notes Matyushkin, it is advisable to begin with the formulation of the educational problem. In a significant number of cases the problem raises the desire to find its solution, leads to attempts to do it.

In general, the effectiveness of training is determined by its ability to provide educational motivation, for this, the construction of educational technologies should meet the following requirements :

- First, provide a safe, supportive emotional and informationally rich learning environment, provide students with the fullness of impressions that stimulate their cognitive interest;

- Secondly, to enhance the joint activities of students in an atmosphere of cooperation, mutual support and open exchange of knowledge based on the positive social effect of cognitive activity, mutual recognition and respect;

- Thirdly, to stimulate the student's research and research heuristic activity on the basis of increasing the role of independent work, individualization and differentiation of learning.

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