Psychology of upbringing, Education and development, Evolution...

Education Psychology

Integrated goal

Know:

• problems of the psychological foundations of upbringing and development of personality;

• the psychological basis of content, forms of organization and methods of moral, labor, aesthetic, physical education of the person;

• Problems of bringing up children with mental development disorders.

Know :

independently analyze the psychological foundations of theories of upbringing and educational practice.

Own :

• skills of scientific analysis of the psychological foundations of theories of upbringing and educational practice.

Education and Development

Evolution of ideas about the psychosocial development of the personality

Preformism

Nowadays, no one will think of counting a child as an adult in miniature, but for many centuries past this view has been widespread. This approach was named "preformism". Make sure that preformism really existed in different ways, for example, look at the works of medieval artists. Children in their canvases are dressed as adults and have the same proportions as adults, if they differ in something, then only by the size of their bodies.

It is known from history that the majority of European parents of that time at about the age of 6 years sent their children to work as apprentices to cities and other villages. Of course, even in those distant times, discounts for age were made and 6-year-old children had some indulgences, but from about age 12 the child led an almost adult life. He wore the same clothes as an adult, played games of adults, participated in holidays with adults, etc. This idea of ​​the child and childhood dominated for many centuries and significantly influenced the theory and practice of education.

Preformism left the arena not so much due to scientific achievements, but as a result of the evolution of culture and, first of all, the widespread dissemination of educational practice. If from ancient times up to the Middle Ages the training was carried out during the child's participation in the labor activity of adults, then approximately from the beginning of the 16th century, Professions that require special training have become widespread. In order to become a banker, a lawyer, a government official, an industrialist, a trader, it is desirable, and subsequently necessary, to study specifically. Nascent middle class began to strive to provide his children with the opportunity to study in order that they could acquire these professions. Thus, more parents began to appear, wanting their children to learn before they start working. This led to an increase in the number of schools, and gradually to a change in consciousness. Everywhere they began to believe that children must first learn, that is, prepare for an adult life, and then already participate in it on an equal footing with adults. In many ways, thanks to this, the child gradually stopped being considered a "small adult" and began to be perceived as a "future adult".

Preformism was replaced by two opposing approaches environmentalism (from English invaironment - the environment) and romantic naturalism. Environmentalism is associated with the name of the English philosopher and teacher John Locke, and romantic naturalism with scientific views and the name of Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

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