Rational and irrational in human activity - Psychology and pedagogy

Rational and irrational in human activity

Rational (from Latin rationalis - reasonable, ratio - reason) - reasonable, based on reason; adequate to the criteria of the mind. In the opinion of many thinkers, rationality can be viewed as a universal category, encompassing pure logic in classical and modern thinking, dialectics and even some forms of mystical experience. However, this thesis about the almost inclusive meaning understood "rationality" requires a critical examination, since it is possible to outline some typological approaches to the disclosure of the philosophical content of this category, which to some extent are opposed to each other.

First, the rational is understood as a method of cognition of reality, which is based on the mind. This central value goes back to the Latin root ratio. Rationalization in general acts in some form or another, is a universal property inherent in various aspects of human activity.

Secondly, rationality is interpreted by many scientists as a kind of structure that has internal features and laws. In this line of reasoning, scientific thinking loses its monopoly on rationality. Probably, in this case, too, the mind ceases to be the defining characteristic of the rational. It is about the specific orderliness inherent in different forms of spiritual activity, including unscientific. This is a special organization, a logicality, which is opposed to structurelessness, chaos, fundamental "ineffability". To irrationalism, this may be the spiritual experience that is not amenable to order and intelligibility.

Thirdly, rationality is identified with a certain principle, the attribute property of civilization. It was assumed that the cultural characteristics of peoples developing in the process of their vital activity, analytical and affective beginnings, are able to develop certain civilizational features. CG Jung divided civilizations into "rational" and affective & quot ;. In this sense, many philosophers used characteristics such as dynamism and static, extroverted and introverted, optimism and fatalism as modes of Western and Eastern cultures for analyzing different types of civilizations.

Irrational - inaccessible to reason; that which can not be comprehended by reason, clearly does not obey the laws of logic, is judged as "supramental", "unreasonable".

What is the source of culture? Reason, human passion, prayerful mood or indomitable life motivation? Culture is universal. It can be assumed that a rational basis is found in it. In other words, it is easy to assume that people are building culture according to preliminary analytical analysis. First, in the head of a person there is some ideal idea, which is carefully considered, and then realized in the process of human activity.

Of course, many cultural phenomena were born as a result of man's original ability to reason and analyze. German sociologist and historian M. Weber tried to reveal the meaning of such an important term as "rationality". M. Weber considered the capitalist economy an example of rationality. It was estimated by the scientist as the realm of accounting, calculation and calculation. However, Weber shows that magic is also, in a sense, rationalistic, rational, because it is usually aimed at achieving specific goals. With the help of magic, you can ensure a successful hunt or a rich harvest. The magical action approaches in this sense with the rational action. They are both aimed at mastering the world, the forces of nature. M. Weber believed that this can explain the origin of art.

However, human culture is multilevel, multi-component. If we talk about the external side of the case, the objects of human activity are objectified and embodied in it. But this process of spiritual creativity is the least reminiscent of the mechanical increment of ever new manifestations of human activity. Culture is spontaneous, open to all winds. It is not a result of analytical analysis, not as a result of the instrumental trick of a person. It is the product of the collective unconscious. In culture, there is an irrational content. An example is a mystical spiritual tradition, images of the unconscious.

Who, for example, came up with a tradition? Paradoxically, these institutions are anonymous, they were born unconsciously as a result of the collective life of people. Tradition is a means of crystallizing the cumulative spiritual experience of mankind, which has lived a lot. Images, inspired by the distant past, sometimes return to the "aged" inhabitants of the Earth. Myths, once created by our distant ancestors, suddenly come to life in front of a modern man.

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