As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:
• what is theoretical and empirical knowledge;
• what is the culture of thinking;
be able to
• Analyze the means of rational consciousness;
• skills of distinguishing target, semantic and operational settings.
Thinking as a psychological phenomenon
A person has the ability to double reality. He sits in the audience and dreams of bathing in the lake. There is no lake around it. It is surrounded by a completely different situation. A beautiful reservoir arises in the imagination. What is thinking, to which a person with consciousness is capable? Thinking - is the inner active desire of a person to master his own ideas (for example, the image of a lake in dreams), concepts, motivations of feelings and will, memories, expectations. Thinking has different resources. It can be abstract, flawlessly logical. However, in the deployment of the mind, emotions also participate. During a dispute, you not only put forward rational arguments, but often connect your feelings.
That's why you can enter one more concept - the "sphere of thinking". This is a figurative expression, meaning the totality of all thinking possibilities that a person has, a group of people, a people. The reasoning person relies primarily on knowledge. Imagine the situation: you entered into a discussion, without having exactly any information about the subject of the dispute. Let's say we talked about the Nile crocodiles. You remember something definite, some picture. To effectively participate in the discussion this is clearly not enough. You did not see these animals alive and you did not observe them yourself.
Nevertheless, the philosopher's thinking often turns out to be productive. Why is it so? First of all, because the thinker relies on the age-old wisdom of people, on immense knowledge. In the sphere of thinking, the spiritual process is accomplished: the mind feverishly actualizes the knowledge that is in it as a reserve. He is looking in the treasury of memory. It is a kind of wandering of the spirit, when certain ideas are born, which are replaced by others. The thinking person tries to somehow group the associations that have arisen in his consciousness, to fix the supposed, guessed or discovered connection between them.
Constant regrouping of all possible contents of consciousness gives different results. Some kind of mental connections arise, and some, on the contrary, are destroyed. For example, in the head of a person a concept is born that it is possible to swim far in the Nile crocodile, if it is successfully saddled with it. However, this connection of representations disintegrates, as soon as an individual begins to understand that he has an improper association with a dolphin. A person realizes that a crocodile is not a dolphin, you can not swim out on it: you will swallow without thinking for long.
Means of rational consciousness
Specification of a certain content of consciousness, when it takes an increasingly definite form, is called thought. Yes, a person is convinced that a crocodile is not the best means of moving along the Nile, although this thought did not come immediately. There were some false associations, but all the same he realized that he was a bit heated, but now he was confirmed in his own opinion. What now? And now we must move on to the next thought.
Thinking is a process. Born in the head, the thought immediately takes on a verbal expression. "Do not put anything off until tomorrow ... The doctrine is light! "The road will be mastered by the going".
Hence, thinking is a mute inner speech, language is a sounded mindset. However, when a person thinks, what and how he thinks at the moment depends on his mood. For example, the company went to a disco, everyone was having fun. But a certain person joined the group and immediately set out to start a discussion. "Guys," he said, "what do you think of our stellar brothers?" Obviously, for such a conversation - not time and place.
But do not we know a different state? For example, talking about the first love. You felt in yourself an unexpected inspiration. It seemed that behind his back wings had grown. Usually you find it difficult to choose words, phrases alternate involuntary pauses. But this time the stiffness disappeared. Thought suddenly took shape in simple and clear sentences. By the way, others suddenly fell silent, overwhelmed by your erudition and conviction. In fact, in all this, one girl was to blame, which just at the time of the argument looked into the audience. So, we see that the process of thinking uses different means: actions, images, logic.
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