Regularities and principles of the educational process - Theory of Learning

Regularities and principles of the educational process

As a result of studying the chapter, the student must:

know

• what laws and laws operate didactics;

• Different approaches to represent the patterns of the educational process;

• the main regularities of the educational process;

• a list and interpretation of the basic principles of the educational process;

be able to

make distinctions between the patterns and principles of the construction of the educational process;

• identify different groups of patterns of the educational process;

• correctly interpret the leading principles of didactics;

• establish a connection between the laws and principles of didactics;

own

• a scientific description of the educational process, based on its laws and principles.

Didactics as a science about the construction of an educational process differs from other everyday practices and approaches to learning in that it relies on a number of patterns and develops on their basis principles the construction and provision of educational process. From the point of view of didactics, instruction can not be spontaneous, arbitrary, carried out on the instinct or on the personal beliefs of the educator. The process of teaching in didactics is built on the basis of the experience of transferring knowledge from generation to generation that has been established over a centuries-long history of civilization, tested and tested by the time of experience in understanding the essential circumstances of a person's progress toward the knowledge of the world and himself, as well as the experience of skilful management of this movement left by outstanding teachers and teachers . Objective accounting, analysis and verification of all these circumstances, carried out by scientists-didacts both in the past and in the present, lead to an understanding and allocation of certain laws and patterns of the learning process.

Law is an essential, necessary, stable, repetitive relationship (relation) between phenomena. The law has such important features as necessity, universality, repeatability and invariance. The pedagogical law, as VA Slastenin defines it, is a category that denotes objective, essential, necessary, general and persistently repetitive links between the phenomena of education, the components of the pedagogical system, reflecting the mechanisms of its self-realization, development and functioning. The concept of law in didactics is used rarely.

Q. M. Simonov, in the didactics, considers an internal essential connection between the phenomena of instruction, which determines their necessary manifestation and development. The concept of regularity is most often used, despite the fact that in the learning process such laws of dialectics as the law of unity and struggle of opposites, the law of the transition of quantitative accumulations to qualitative changes, the law of negation of negation, ;

Building the learning process, apart from dialectic laws, calls for dialectic categories: the category of general, particular and individual (overcoming functionalism in learning); category of measure; category of essence and phenomenon; category of content and form; the category of necessity; category of randomness (accounting for the phenomenon of scholasticism in learning); category of time.

Based on the study of the works of domestic didacts, VM Simonov singled out the main learning laws :

- the law of social conditioning of goals, content and methods of teaching;

- the law of the developing and nurturing effect of learning on students;

- the law of conditionality of learning outcomes by the nature of the activities and communication of students;

- the law of integrity and unity of the pedagogical process;

- the law of the relationship between theory and practice;

- the law of interrelation and interdependence of individual, group and collective learning activities.

The patterns of the learning process relate to the methodological foundations and are objectively existing, repetitive, stable, significant links between the conditions of this process and its result. The study of the regularities of the learning process often reduces to the search for general trends in the functioning of didactic systems. In didactics, there is no single approach to interpreting and classifying the regularities of the learning process.

Q. V. Anisimov, O. G. Grokholskaya, ND Nikandrov identify the following groups of regularities in the learning process: :

1) structural (the determinative role of learning objectives in relation to the content of education, the determining role of the content of education in the learning process, the links between the components of the content of education and the ways of their assimilation, etc.);

2) systemic (the relationship between learning and the social system, the interdependence of the learning process and the pedagogical consciousness of society and specific subjects of the pedagogical process, the interdependence of the learning process and the microenvironment, etc.)

3) content (the interrelation and interdependence of the scientific, ideological and moral value orientation of the content of the learning process, the interrelationship of new knowledge and new techniques in the learning process and active thinking search for solving problems);

4) evolutionary (the interrelation between the characteristics of the learning process and the level of student preparation, the interdependence of the quality characteristics of the learning process on its quantitative characteristics, etc.);

5) functional (the interdependence of the qualitative characteristics of the learning process and the preparation of students for independent mastery of social experience, the interdependence of the learning process and the preparation of students for self-regulation and evaluation of their achievements);

6) historical (the relationship between the manifestation of all the components of the learning process and the features of the era, the interdependence and, as a result, the variability of learning objectives and the content of education from the conditions of society's development).

L. N. Sedov and IV Shtykh distinguish the following two groups of regularities: external - characterize the dependence of learning on social processes and conditions and internal - establish links between the components of the learning process (goals , content, methods, means and forms); between the nature of the activities of the teacher and the activities of students; between the attitude of students to the learning process and the effectiveness of the results of this process. External laws in a generalized form are formulated as follows: "The goals, content and methods of teaching are always socially conditioned, reflecting the requirements of society to the level of education of the individual."

As priority authors, the following laws are formulated:

1) learning is always related to upbringing;

2) the goals, content, methods, forms and means of learning are always linked;

3) the effectiveness of the educational process is mediated by the optimal choice of methods, forms and means of teaching;

4) the more active the personality in the learning process, the more successfully this process is carried out;

5) the strength of mastering theoretical material is related to the level of its practical fixing in the course of the learning process;

6) the effectiveness of the results of the learning process is largely determined by the nature of the interaction of the teacher and students in the learning process.

There are other classifications of patterns in the learning process. Thus, VM Simonov shares the patterns in general and concrete. The following are general laws: the aims of learning; the content of the training; quality of education; methods of teaching; management of training; stimulating learning. Specific (particular) patterns follow from the main components of the educational process: didactic; epistemological; psychological; cybernetic; sociological; organizational.

The effectiveness of the learning process also depends on psychological patterns , which allow you to establish links between the learning process and the mental processes and states of students. As an example, O. S. Grebenyuk and TB Grebenyuk called the following patterns: the dependence of the development of mental operations (analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization) on the content of tasks and questions; the dependence of the development of the qualities of thinking (flexibility, criticality, independence, creativity) on the nature of questions and tasks; the dependence of the development of the motivation of the teaching on the nature of the content of education; dependence of the development of the emotional sphere from the inclusion in the learning process of special exercises.

Q. A. Slastenin argues that among the diverse characteristics and classifications of the laws of the learning process, the most stable regularity is the development of the individual by appropriating her social experience, universal culture and spiritual values.

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Certain regularities in the learning process take place when it comes to the formation of concepts. The students' understanding of common judgments is due to the fact that it is the result of the search for patterns in the natural-social world. As V. Okon says, the study of patterns and the systematization of knowledge occur in the school mainly on two levels. The first level examines the regularities of the first series. After the opening, the student expresses them using a chain of concepts that includes at least two concepts, although there are often more of them. Comparison of two or more regularities in the process of independent thinking can be a starting point for discovering the law of higher order, ie, located as if on the second level.

In the work on the discovery and formulation of laws and laws, an important role is played by such facts as observation, acquired experience and independently acquired knowledge.

The effectiveness of the learning process also depends on the conditions in which it occurs (hygienic, material, etc.).

The objective nature of the laws of the learning process is expressed in the fact that they are always present in the educational process, regardless of whether the teacher is oriented toward them or not in his practical activity.

Regularities of the learning process find their concrete expression in the principles of learning. Knowledge of the laws of learning and the formation of personality is not enough to unfold and implement the educational process itself. For this, it is necessary to shift knowledge of these laws into the plane of actual practical actions, i.e. get a different kind of knowledge, knowledge as a guide to action. This kind of knowledge and the provisions formulated on its basis are referred to in science as a category of principle.

The principles of teaching arose at that stage of pedagogical science, when she began to systemize the vast experience of teaching practice, generalizing the empirical factors of successful learning.

Polish author V. Okon singles out in the didactics three meanings of the term principle & quot ;. According to the first meaning, the principle is an assertion based on a scientific law governing any processes.

The second meaning of the term means a norm of conduct that is considered mandatory. The authors of the principles of learning that adhere to this idea are guided most often by intuition, by the search for such general norms that the teacher must adhere to in their daily work with students.

Finally, the term principle can mean a thesis derived from any doctrine.

The basis of the conscious activity of teachers, aimed at guiding the teaching of students, is the knowledge of the general laws of learning. The laws of learning express essential links between conditions, means and results of this process.

Scientists interpret the epistemological substantiation of the principles of teaching in different ways. Thus, the well-known didacts MA Danilov and Μ. N. Skatkin proceeded from the proposition that there is a relationship between the goals of educating young people, which change at each historical stage of the development of society and are determined by the general laws of education. The provisions expressing this dependence are called the principles of education and, unlike the general laws of training, operate throughout the time of existence of a separate socio-economic formation.

Therefore, the principles of didactics, as defined by TA Il'ina, are the main points on which to base themselves in teaching the basics of science at all levels of learning.

To. Sosnitsky under the principles of education understands the most general patterns that the teacher must adhere to during his didactic activity.

The author believes that different teaching systems may be subject to different principles of teaching, sometimes even mutually exclusive. K. Sosnitsky believes that the principles of teaching can be correlated with various structural components of the learning process: with goals, with the content of training, with didactic means, with the didactic process.

In modern pedagogy, there are various approaches to describing learning principles .

Psychological research disclose various aspects of learning, on the basis of which a deeper interpretation of its principles can be given.

The social approach to the characterization of the principles of teaching allows deeper and fuller realization of the tasks that are put before education by modern social development.

The cybernetic approach makes it possible to understand the principles of learning management as an integral process and its separate sides.

You can talk about the principles of learning in terms of biological opportunities development of mental activity of students, as well as emerging biological conditions that contribute to the learning outcomes or inhibit it.

Different classifications of the principles of learning are conditioned by the different ideas underlying them. For example, Ya. A. Komensky was based on the idea of ​​naturalness of teaching, although the very concept of "principle" they were not justified. The idea of ​​naturalness in the understanding of A. A. Komensky is a natural method, or the principle of conformity to nature. Nature is one, everything in it proceeds gradually, without jumps, in a natural way. Similarly, the upbringing of the child as a particle of nature must be done in a natural way. The great importance of Ya. A. A. Komensky attached to the conscious beginning of learning. Where there is no consciousness, the teacher noted, and instruction is dogmatically conducted through senseless memorization, formalism dominates in knowledge, and the learning process itself will inevitably be mechanical and passive.

The main condition for successful learning is the comprehension of the essence of objects and phenomena, their understanding by students. In Great didactics Ya. A. Komensky wrote: "It is not right to educate the youth - it does not mean to drive into the minds of a mixture of words, phrases, sayings and opinions collected from the authors, and this means revealing the ability to understand things, so that precisely from this ability, as if from a living source, flows of brooks (knowledge)

At the same time, A. A. Komensky considered not only his understanding of the basic property of conscious knowledge, but also the use in practice: "You will facilitate the mastering of the disciple, if in everything you teach him, show him what it is brings everyday benefits to the hostel & quot ;. It should be specially noted that consciousness in learning from YA Komensky is inseparably linked with the activity of the student, with his creativity.

I am. A. Komensky singled out the following classical didactic principles : Consciousness and activity, visibility, consistency and systematicness, exercise and the assimilation of knowledge.

The golden rule of learning, according to Ya. A. Komensky, is clarity. At the heart of his teaching of clarity is sensationalistic materialistic epistemology. He cites a well-known empirical thesis: "There was nothing in the mind that would not have been given in sensation in advance."

Thus, A. Disterweig (1790-1866) proposed 33 didactic rules , derived by him on the basis of psychological laws.

Here are some of them.

I. Learning rules pertaining to the student-subject.

1. Teach naturefully!

2. Teach visually!

3. Take care that students do not forget what they learned!

II. Learning rules for educational material - an object.

1. Distribute the material of each subject in accordance with the level of development and the laws of development of the student!

2. Associate related subjects!

3. Go from subject to designation, not vice versa!

III. Rules of training in accordance with external conditions - time, place, position, etc.

1. Pass with your pupil objects more consistently than at the same time!

2. Consider the prospective future situation of your pupil!

3. Teach yourself culturally!

IV. Learning rules for teachers.

1. Try to make learning fascinating (interesting)!

2. Train vigorously!

3. Find pleasure in developing or moving both your own and your students!

The basis of the principles of teaching Polish teacher K. Lech is a kind of doctrine, the essence of which is the author's recognition of the analogy between the system of productive labor and the system of education. He singled out five principles, the first three of which must be observed first of all by the teacher, and the last two by the students.

Humanization of labor is a principle that requires that any work of a student becomes his personal task, arouses his interest and intellectual activity, and creates a prospect of success.

Cooperation and harmony in work, i.e. collective performance of tasks, the rational organization of labor in the team, the recognition of common tasks by their own and the responsibility of everyone for their work.

Saving in labor or purposefulness in work, its productivity, i.e. correct and complete use of the resources of time, forces and capabilities.

Punishment, organization and order in labor, accuracy and accuracy, observance of obligations and terms, correct allocation of time for work and rest.

The rationalization of labor, its pilot testing and, on this basis, further improvement.

The goals of society, implemented through school education, are reflected in the classification of the principles of learning developed by MA Danilov and Μ. N. Skatkin in 1975.

In 1975, L. V. Zankov conducted experimental and experimental training in primary classes, based on the following four principles of training: 1) the principle of learning at a high level of difficulty; 2) the principle of teaching at a fast pace; 3) the principle of the leading role of theoretical knowledge in teaching; 4) the principle of students' awareness of the learning process.

Q. The following form of didactic principles is formulated by Okon:

- systematic, or ordering, knowledge of students, which applies not only to the content of training, but also to the very course of learning, to its procedural side;

- the visibility, or filling the space between the concrete and the abstract. This refers to a set of norms that are based on the laws of the learning process and relate to the cognition of reality on the basis of observation, thinking and practice on the path from the concrete to the abstract and back;

- independence, or limiting the dependence of students on the teacher, when all the manifestations of natural inclinations of children to independent activity are taken into account, as well as the conscious creation of optimal conditions for the development of independence in the activities and thinking of students;

- the connection between theory and practice, the basis of which is the understanding of the connection between the knowledge of reality, the consequence of which is theory, and practice;

- the effectiveness, or the relationship between goals and learning outcomes, which relates to the functioning and optimization of many factors that have a direct or indirect effect on the didactic process;

- accessibility, or overcoming the difficulties of students in the cognition and transformation of reality, which is associated with the need for the teacher to find ways to establish contact with each student, the selection of methods and means of instruction that would maximize the movement of the forces and capabilities of the majority students corresponding to this phase of their mental, moral and social and physical development;

- a combination of individual approach and collectivism in teaching, or the connection of the interests of the individual and society, which implies a harmonious combination in the learning process of various forms of work.

In the context of a holistic pedagogical process, VA Slastenin and his followers singled out two groups of principles: the organization of the pedagogical process and the management of the activities of pupils.

The first group includes:

- the principle of the humanistic orientation of the pedagogical process (the need to combine the goals of society and the individual);

- the principle of the connection of the pedagogical process with life and industrial practice (correlation of the content of education and the forms of teaching and educational work with the changes in the economy, politics, culture and the whole social life of the country and beyond);

- the principle of combining education and upbringing with difficulty for the common good;

- the principle of scientific character (bringing the content of education in line with the level of development of science and technology, with the experience accumulated by the world civilization);

- the principle of focus on the unity of knowledge and skills, consciousness and behavior (the students' conviction in the truth and life force of the received knowledge, ideas, mastering skills and skills of socially valuable behavior);

- the principle of teaching and educating children in the team (the optimal combination of collective, group and individual forms of the organization of the pedagogical process);

- the principle of continuity, consistency and systematic (consolidation of previously acquired knowledge, skills, skills, personal qualities, their consistent development and improvement);

- the principle of visibility;

- the principle of aesthetization of all children's life (development of high artistic and aesthetic taste among pupils).

The second group includes:

- the principle of combining pedagogical management with the development of initiative and independence of pupils;

- the principle of consciousness and activity of students in a holistic pedagogical process

- the principle of respect for the child's personality, combined with reasonable demand for it;

- the principle of reliance on the positive in a person, on the strengths of his personality;

- the principle of consistency of school, family and public requirements;

- the principle of combining direct and parallel pedagogical influences (impact not on an individual person, but on a group or a collective as a whole);

- the principle of accessibility and feasibility;

- the principle of taking into account the age and individual characteristics of pupils;

- the principle of strength and effectiveness of the results of education, upbringing and development.

In the opinion of VK Chernysheva, in historical and theoretical works didactic principles act as a system, i.e. as the positions connected in the object of research - pedagogical sights of any scientist-didact.

The set of didactic principles proposed by Yu. K. Babansky is a system based on the activity approach to learning.

Yu. K. Babansky revealed the correlation of the main components of the educational process with the principles of teaching. Thus, the tasks of teaching are correlated with the principles of the orientation of learning for the solution of the interrelationship between the tasks of education, upbringing and the general development of trainees; the content of training - with the principles of scientific learning; communication of learning with life; systematic and consistent training; accessibility of training; methods of teaching and the means corresponding to them - with the principles of visualization of learning; consciousness and activity of the trainees under the leadership of the teacher; a combination of different methods, as well as training tools, depending on the objectives and content of training; forms of organization of training - with the principles of combining different forms of education depending on the tasks, content and methods of instruction; conditions for training - with the principles of creating the necessary conditions for training; the results of training - with the principles of strength, awareness and effectiveness of the results of education, upbringing and development.

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