Relationship between pedagogical theory and pedagogical...

The connection between pedagogical theory and pedagogical practice

From didactics to methodology

An effective model of the formation of the whole educational activity of schoolchildren, as well as the general intellectual skills that realize it, should be inherently linked with a didactic justification of the choice of adequate material for the intellectual work of preschool children and junior schoolchildren, namely gambling and educational tasks that provide for the prevention, correction of their learning activities.

The system of tasks of the following six types corresponds to the structural-content features of educational activity and a set of general intellectual skills (which are of primary importance for its implementation).

1. Classification (grouping) of visual material (on a given or independently found basis), self-control.

2. Listening and classification of verbal material (on a given or independently found basis), self-control.

3. Reading and classification of verbal material (on a given or independently found basis), self-control.

4. Generalized reflection of the content of illustrations to the teaching material, self-control.

5. Generalization of the information presented in the oral report, self-control.

6. Reading and generalization of verbal material, self-control.

Tasks and, accordingly, game or educational material, on

they are implemented, can really go beyond the designated scheme, can be of a mixed type, requiring, for example, simultaneous treatment and observation, and listening, and reading, and classification.

Pedagogical work on the prevention, formation and correction of shortcomings in educational activities at the methodical level has two main directions: access to the games and appeal directly to the educational material, i.e. to the leading activities of preschoolers and younger schoolchildren, with the assignment of the role of slave types - educational activities for the first and game for the second. Naturally, children in transition from pre-school childhood to school, while at the intersection of different age periods, need to organize for them both play and educational activities. This is especially important for children at risk, who need both additional pedagogical assistance and support in arranging their stay in the school atmosphere, and in the characteristic transition from gaming to learning.

Having in mind the psychophysiological characteristics of a child of primary school age, the primary school teacher must own not only his own direct pedagogical methods and methods, but also the technologies for organizing and conducting gaming activities that perform the functions of preventing and correcting the deficiencies in the development of children. This can be facilitated by a system of certain didactic games, which involves the formation of the following general intellectual skills:

1) classification (grouping) of objects according to a given or independently found base, self-control;

2) classification of images of objects according to a given or found by the students base, self-control;

3) hearing and classification of objects according to a given or independently found basis, self-control;

4) generalization of subjects, self-control;

5) generalization of images of objects (drawings, pictures), self-control;

6) hearing, generalization of features of objects, phenomena, self-control.

Features of the implementation of this system clearly show examples of the relevant games.

/. Games for the classification (grouping) of objects according to the teacher's or the basis found by the students, providing self-control:

group objects in the classroom (in the room, in the courtyard, on the playground, etc.), in color, or in shape or purpose;

combine the objects in the classroom (in the room, in the yard, on the playground, etc.) into different groups ( In each group we include items that have something similar that distinguishes them from the objects of the other group. ;).

Games for the grouping of objects contribute to the formation of the ability to allocate the given properties and, consequently, to analyze, compare, generalize, and develop self-control skills. These games can be conducted in different versions: the grouping is performed by one student, the others confirm or correct his actions; meets the leader of a group of three to four students, his answer is commented on by other classmates; grouping actions can be reflected in children's drawings, etc.

2. Games for the classification (grouping) of images of objects - games of type "Domino", using images (drawings, pictures) of objects, animals, birds, plants and providing for their separation according to a given or found by the students; self-monitoring of the task.

The object of classification can be a number of lines - rectilinear and curvilinear, of different configuration and differently located on the plane (Figure 3).

It is proposed to distribute the lines to as many groups as possible based on a common characteristic. There can be four such groups: one-term and two-term straight lines and one-term and two-term curves. Lines assigned to one group should be crossed out with a colored pencil or a felt-tip pen. The color of pencils, markers for different groups each student chooses himself.

Fig. 3. Go to the classification task

3. Building games , improving listening and classifying skills. For this, games like "Guess who sings" are used; ( Guess whose voice is ). Children holding hands, go singing the first verse of the song in a circle and chorus. In the center of the circle stands with closed eyes "Bloomer". The children stop and one of them sings the second verse. Bloomer should by voice know who sang, and call him by name.

Classifications of objects by ear on an independently found basis facilitate games of the type "Call the fourth (fifth, sixth ...)": the presenter pronounces the names of several plants (animals, birds, fish ...) and refers to one of the players with the sentence: "Name the fourth (fifth, sixth ...)". The rest follow the answer; the respondent incorrectly leaves the game.

4. Games for the generalization of objects , in particular, tasks that supplement games for the classification of objects. For example, a general (generalizing) word is to name groups of objects in the classroom (in a room, in a courtyard, on a playground ...), without enumerating the objects themselves.

5. Generalization games , object image classification ,

Variable game "Fourth (... sixth) extra", in which among the proposed images it is necessary to cross out an object falling out of the semantic range (Figure 4).

To improve the skills of classification and generalization, you can return to the task described in paragraph 2. But in this version the task will be to combine the lines into as few groups as possible, to find a new feature that unites them. In this case, the number of groups will be not four, but two - curves and straight lines.

6. Games , promoting the ability to generalize by ear signs of objects, phenomena. Such games include guessing, recognizing trees (shrubs, mushrooms, berries, cereals, etc.) known to children, when the teacher (or one of the children is the presenter) names the signs of some tree, and then commands: & quot One, two, three - who guessed, under this tree

Fig. 4. To the assignment for generalization and classification

Run! The children scatter. The teacher or the facilitator himself checks to see if they have identified the right tree. Errors are analyzed, corrected, which encourages students to self-test, self-control.

Generalization skills by ear are also formed when guessing puzzles that require recognition and determination of an object or phenomenon according to their essential characteristics. For example, those that are not immediately solved as a riddle:

We always walk together,

Like brothers.

We are at dinner under the table,

And at night under the bed,

but require reasoning associated with a fairly intense work of thought:

In a nice little house the old woman lives,

Sometimes for a walk quietly goes,

That's in the thickets wandering,

That will come out to the water,

And then does not go out of the house anywhere.

( Turtle)

Red? No, it's black.

And why is it white?

Because it's green.

(Blackcurrant)

According to the results of didactic games, in each case, an error analysis is conducted, which teaches children to detect wrong decisions, inaccuracies, ie, inaccuracies. to self-control.

In carrying out interrelated didactic games, the teacher, as already noted, solves the problem of both prevention, preventing students' difficulties in mastering learning activities, and correcting their shortcomings in conditions of playing activity, which is still so close to younger schoolchildren.

At the same time, you can not miss the moment when infantilism (delay in the previous age period) has already been overcome, adjusted, which requires a certain restriction of game therapy and inclusion of schoolchildren directly in educational activities.

In connection with the fact that many modern preschoolers already either have reading skills or are learning to read, the typology of tasks aimed at methodically solving the problem of their preparation for learning activity, the formation of related skills and the correction of its shortcomings, is compiled with full program of implementation of this activity, but no longer in the game, but in the teaching. Consider examples of assignments to the United States alphabet - the first textbook on reading, the most approximate and to preschool and to the younger school age (compiled by VG Goretsky, VA Kiryushkin, AF Shanko, VD Bersenev - M., 1999).

1. Observation y classification (for a given or independently found basis), self-control.

Observation object: is a drawing for texts that introduce children to the letter and sound a .

Instructions: Consider the drawing in your alphabet, which is made to a page that introduces the letter and the sound of "a". Select the items in the figure whose names begin with the letter "a". Think of your own tasks, aimed at grouping drawings (pictures for words with the letter a in the middle, at the end of the word, etc.).

Write the best solutions on the board.

2. Listening, classification (on a given or independently found basis), self-control.

Text. Dad bought a pencil box from Pete. Vera has a folder and plasticine. And Lena bought a doll. Pavliku - brushes and paints.

Instruction: Listen to the text (in the beginning only the first two sentences are given, to the whole text they go later as a variant of a more complex task), name the words in which there is a sound n * (Dad, plasticine). Check yourself on the alphabet.

Children can come up with their own variants of assignments: name a) only words that have the sound of "drink"; b) words in which there is no sound n & quot ;, no sound pi *. You can ask questions: which groups will the words of this text be divided into? (For example, in three groups - with the sound of "k", with the sound of "kp", and words in which there is not that sound), in two groups - monosyllabic and polysyllabic words beginning with a capital letter and a small one.

3. Reading, evaluation (on a given or independently found basis), self-control.

Text: Tanya's cat. At Sani and Nikita perch. And the cat is right there. Well, a cat-kotok.

Instructions: Read the text and:

- Write out the words with the to only at the beginning and end of the word (like, cat, kotok), check yourself on the alphabet;

- Divide the words into two groups - with the to and without;

- in more than one group, with the to only at the beginning of the word, only in its middle, only at its end, and at the beginning and at the end of the word without the letter to & quot ;;

- write these groups of words in different bars;

- Test your work using the alphabet.

4. Observation, generalization, self-control.

The object of observation: drawing to the text Alik was looking for Nina and Alla ".

Instructions: Give the title to this drawing ( Hide and Seek ;, Game & quot ;, "Hide and Seek", Where is Nina? & quot ;, Alik was looking for Nina and Alla "...). Determine whose name is the most successful. Explain why? (Title Hide and Seek generalize and most accurately disclose the contents of the drawing).

5. Listening , generalization , self-control.

Text. Tigers jump through the ring. Bears ride on motorcycles. Dogs dance to the music. I really love the circus!

Instruction: Listen to the text and give it a title - title it ("Circus", "About the circus", "I also love circus" ... ). Think and tell me whose answer is most accurate. Why?

6. Reading, summarizing, , self-control.

Text. Lisa knows different tales: about the turnip, about the black grouse. Zina knows the tale of the gray wolf and fox. And Vera sang a tale-song about a goat. Nina Ivanovna told us new interesting tales. What fairy tales do you know?

Instructions: Read and name this story ( Pro tales & quot ;, About a fairy tale & quot ;, I also know fairy tales ...). Think and tell me whose name is better. Why?

The typological certainty of assignments for the formation and correction of schoolchildren's educational activity does not in any way exclude its subordination to the general, unified rules of any system of study assignments, namely, the necessary regulation of the complexity of assignments.

In the classroom, it is necessary to provide the conditions for a certain intellectual voltage, but at the same time the overvoltage is unacceptable. These conditions can be regulated by the following factors:

- the volume of the educational material;

- the plot complexity of the material;

- Simultaneous combination of different types of tasks (observation, reading and self-control, listening, observation and self-control ...)

- reliance on the visual series, additionally (at a visual-figurative level) revealing the verbal-logical material used in the task;

- an appeal to didactic games that help to relieve tension and increase student activity.

Work on the teaching tasks that provide for prevention, the formation of educational activities and the correction of its shortcomings in preschool children and junior schoolchildren, also requires compliance with a number of rules. First of all, it is the overcoming of the tendency to random memory of children, who do not yet know how to memorize knowledge, especially in the case of weak students.

As you can see from the examples given, when performing tasks, children are forced with intense attention and repeatedly return to the same educational texts. At the same time, they also turn to the sources of their involuntary memory, which is the basis for a casual, incidental memorization, which precedes only the voluntary memorization acquired by children and contributes to its development. At the same time, the skills of classification, generalization, self-control gradually become not a subject of assimilation, but a means of developing arbitrary memory and meaningful mastery of knowledge.

Important is the choice of educational material, texts of assignments, which, being freed from primitivism, should enrich the child's spiritual world with classical and personally significant knowledge. If these are the first textbooks on literature, reading, they should choose the best works of domestic and foreign classics, oral folk art, riddles, proverbs, sayings, prompting for reflection and comparison. If we are talking about didactic material, which is necessary for the subsequent mastering of knowledge, then it must "work" to further increase knowledge on this or that subject. Suggestion and pre-work preparation requires referring to illustrations that should not adversely affect, "destroy" brought up in children, humane emotions and moods.

We should not strive to ensure that the number of assignments of certain types and in academic subjects is necessarily the same. It is not possible formally - for the sake of quantitative uniformity - to make assignments, destroying or deforming the content and emotional potential of the educational material. The inadequacy of examples for this or that type of tasks is successfully compensated for when referring to other textbooks on different subjects, which, in turn, can guide the authors of educational and methodological aids, as well as educators of pre-school educational institutions and teachers, into a special diverse combination of relevant tasks. Preschoolers and junior schoolchildren help to learn how to work with different teaching aids, textbooks, familiarizing with various branches of knowledge during the mastery of educational activity.

Methodical approaches to solving the problem of the formation and correction of shortcomings in the educational activity of schoolchildren should also be oriented toward the fact that the child's intellectual capabilities are markedly higher than the requirements of the "traditional" school. This fact was noted by many psychologists and educators - LS Vygotsky, D. B. Elkonin, V. V. Davydov, L. V. Zankov, who not casually formulated one of the principles of his system as "High level of difficulty in teaching" . And this means that the specific tasks that shape and correct the educational activity of schoolchildren, preparing for the mastery of this activity and preschool children (as well as the whole process of teaching and developing children), should not be understated by the lungs, implying only imitation and reproductive efficiency. On the contrary,

they should be counted on a fairly high intellectual activity of children, on their productive, creative activity.

Recognition of the importance of working with preschool children, with junior schoolchildren, aimed at the development of general intellectual skills and implemented in gaming and learning tasks that precede educational activity, makes it one of the manifestations of the creative potential of the teacher.

The importance of this work necessitates the development of specific pedagogical technologies, the streamlining of procedures, the strict implementation of which leads to the achievement of the planned result (GF Kumarina, 1988). Since primary education is subject-based (children are given knowledge in mathematics, United States, reading ...), the creation of private methods should provide for unified approaches, a certain didactic typology of study assignments that cement their subject-methodological concreteness and diversity.

The effectiveness of the work on the formation of the educational activity of junior schoolchildren is also continu- ously linked with the teacher's effective attention to the typology of gaming tasks, their preventive role in preparing preschool children for mastering learning activity and correcting and developing roles in eliminating shortcomings in the educational activity of junior schoolchildren.

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Causes of difficulties for preschool children in preparing for learning activities and junior schoolchildren when mastering it

The school, the learning process itself requires the child to make certain efforts, overcoming considerable difficulties. The so-called safely schoolchildren cope with this, achieving success in mastering the learning activity, hence, in the assimilation of knowledge, skills, skills. However, many children, unprepared or under-trained, are already beginning to lag behind in the first class from the first class, and this lag, increasing as a snowball, is reflected in their entire educational and general life activity.

The failure of schoolchildren to master the learning activity and the resulting lack of success are attributed to various factors - the weakness of thought operations, the underdevelopment of mnemonic processes, the underdevelopment of speech, the inability to organize their psychic activity.

The program of actions to prevent and overcome the difficulties in the exercise should be based on an analysis of the signs of school failure, the choice of adequate measures to eliminate them and assess the effectiveness of the planned and implemented actions. Specific guidelines for its development are such important components as the individual characteristics of student development, i.e. real training opportunities or "learnability" metrics, and learning conditions.

In the individual typological characteristics of children at risk, characterized by low success in training and difficulties in mastering learning activities, the following features distinguish:

- deviations in mental development and health;

- insufficient level of social and psychological-pedagogical readiness for school;

- not the formation of psycho-physiological and psychological prerequisites of educational activity.

Paying tribute to the role of general intellectual skills, without the possession of which successful educational activity is impossible, it is necessary to identify the signs that make it difficult for children to form and improve these skills, preventing the active inclusion of children in the learning and development process. They primarily include:

1. Lack of motivation, motives for learning. To the question: "Do you want to go to school?" answer: "I do not know", and if they give an affirmative answer, it turns out that they are attracted not by the content of school life, but by the purely external side and "honorable" the status of a schoolboy (GF Kumarin).

2. Unwillingness to think when solving learning problems, striving to get rid of mental work, searching for workarounds that eliminate the need to reason, think, which leads to intellectual underload. The latter does not always serve as an indicator of pathological changes in the child's mental development.

3. Low cognitive activity, children's lack of initiative. The circle of their interests is narrowed, does not extend beyond the immediate surrounding, they do not ask questions, the inner impulse to knowledge, to the teaching is markedly reduced (GF Kumarina).

4. Irresponsibility - children easily forget about direct educational duties, do not worry about not having fulfilled them (GF Kumarina, VS Tseitlin).

5. Underestimation of their capabilities, inability to sensibly assess the difficulties of the forthcoming work, the mood for quick and easy completion, lack of patience and endurance (VS Tseitlin); the inability to overcome, overcome the established psychological state based on the belief in the impossibility of performing a completely feasible task ("I can not", "I can not" - PP Blonsky, 1964), the lack of motivation "I must" which turns the cub into a man (VS Mukhina, 1998).

6. Reduced self-regulation, lack of self-control, weak arbitrariness of activity (GF Kumarina, NI Murachkovsky, VS Tseitlin).

The terms of the training and the conditions for the formation of educational activity are more or less clearly indicated in the relevant program documents: "The concept of the content of continuing education" (preschool and elementary school link. - M., 2002), programs "Childhood" (St. Petersburg, 2002), Origins (M., 2001), a program for elementary schools of general education institutions (M., 2001).

One and, perhaps, the first of the conditions for the success of junior schoolchildren in mastering educational activity, noted in these documents, is to solve the problem of continuity of work with preschool children and junior schoolchildren in the formation and development of intellectual skills that are significant for learning activity. Specifically, this is indicated in the definition of the goal of preparing children for school: the formation of the preschooler qualities necessary to master the learning activity - curiosity, initiative, independence, arbitrariness, creative self-expression, etc.

The teacher of preschool educational institution should be guided by the integral and intensive intellectual, emotional and personal development of the child, to promote the natural formation of such promising new forms of behavior as the arbitrariness of behavior, the capacity for logical thinking, self-control, creative imagination, which is the basis for the forthcoming schooling .

However, these documents emphasize the need for an individual-differentiated approach to children, because each child develops in his own pace, and the task of the educator carefully creates conditions for his natural individual and personal growth.

When reflecting in the program documents the importance of the focus on the overall development of children should specifically focus on the formation of intellectual skills,

preparing for the upcoming training activities. They pointed to the need for development in preschool children of such properties and skills as:

- general cognitive abilities, including the ability to observe, describe, build assumptions and find ways to test them;

- mathematical representations that provide for the classification of figures for different reasons - form, size,

- a symbolic function of thinking in the process of mastering the traditional system of used notation;

- the union of objects on the basis of common characteristics - furniture, dishes, transport, etc.;

- the differentiation of syllabic signs, the recognition of sounds in words by the ear, the improvement of the speech of speech;

- a collective discussion of listening to literary works with an elementary problem analysis;

- perception of the form of musical works with the definition of their genre (song, dance, waltz);

- recognizing familiar letters when they are written differently (printed, handwritten, large, small), which gradually leads the children to read by syllables, according to words, to the compilation of sentences and texts;

- the performance of elementary logical operations - classification, comparison, etc.,

- mastering the skills of social behavior, the ability to control, evaluate them from the point of view of the obligation and their results.

In these program documents attention is drawn to serious omissions in the work of preschool institutions. First of all, the fact that often the preparation for school is considered as the beginning of the study of the program of the first class and is reduced to the formation of narrowly subject knowledge and skills. In this rather common case, the continuity between preschool and junior school age is determined not by the fact whether the future schoolchild has developed the qualities necessary to carry out a new activity, whether its prerequisites have been formed, and whether he has very specific knowledge of certain subjects.

Orientation to the overall development of the child, beyond the boundaries of narrowly subject knowledge and the formation of general intellectual skills and skills of educational activity continues to continue in the primary school classes.

So, the organization of conditions for the successful development and life activity of preschool children and junior schoolchildren, the optimal opportunities for self-realization and the disclosure of the personal qualities of each, requires both the preschool teacher and the teacher to focus on continuity in the work on the formation of certain intellectual skills in those real interrelations and combinations, which correspond to the structural-content predetermined educational activity of junior schoolchildren.

Based on these principles, pedagogical assistance is also being built for children experiencing difficulties in mastering intellectual skills that are especially important for learning activity.

Targeted help for children in learning activities

Children come to school with different levels of general development, as well as with a very different level of preparation for school. From this it follows that the pre-school teacher and teacher should pay special attention to the degree of readiness of each child for schooling, the availability of prerequisites for this new learning activity for him, i.e. - diagnostics.

Considering the problem of preliminary diagnostics, GF Kumarina resembles the words of K.D. Ushinsky that if pedagogy wants to educate a person in all respects, she must also recognize him in all respects. A.S. Makarenko, S.T. Shatsky, P. P. Blonsky and other outstanding domestic teachers noted that without the ability to study children, to know them versatilely, there can be no real teacher.

The purpose and significance of the diagnostic work of GF Kumarin is defined as the ability to observe the growth of personality, which marks every stage of mental development, to know methods of evaluating different aspects of this development in correlation with age norms and specific dynamics of the formation of each particular child, in the pedagogical concepts to qualify the problem, the specific difficulty of the child, if it is found, to have an idea of ​​the possible psycho-physiological, psychological prerequisites and means necessary assistance.

The program of predictive diagnosis of children directly in the preschool period is revealed by examples of tasks that identify the opportunities for older preschool children to master intellectual skills (in direct correlation of such skills with different abilities of children in mastering the forthcoming learning activity):

Coloring of figures (N.Ya. Chutko's technique).

Assignment of the task: reveal the ability to classify visual material on an independently found basis.

Organization of work : can be carried out both individually and frontally. Preliminarily, prepare a sheet of paper for each child, showing triangles (4 isosceles, 3 equilateral and rectangular) in a straight, inverted and mirror position; In the right corner of the sheet (or on its back), you must specify the name and the name of the child.

Instructions: This task is similar to the ones you performed many times, drawing or painting different shapes. Now carefully consider these figures and find among them the same. They need to be painted in one color. How many groups of identical figures are found, and so many different color pencils (or markers) will be needed. Color for the coloring of each chooses himself. I repeat. ... Is everyone clear? Follow the .

Evaluation of the task '.

1st level - the task is executed correctly: three groups of figures are selected.

2nd level - one mistake: no distinction of identical figures in the forward and inverted positions or the distinction of identical figures in the forward and mirror positions.

3rd level - two errors: no distinction of figures in the forward and mirror positions.

4th level - three similar errors, senseless chaotic coloring of figures.

Viewing a scene (Yu. N. Vjunkova's technique).

Assignment of the task: revealing the ability to classify by a given reason and generalize the clearly perceived story material.

Organization of work: is carried out both individually and frontally. In the assignment, any plot picture depicting the urban or rural landscape, the characteristics of people's vital activity, etc., can be used. It is important that there are many different objects in it (houses, people, machinery, plants, animals, etc.).

Instructions: View the picture carefully and connect the items that you can include in one group. Emphasize each group you found with a pencil (felt-tip pen) of the same color. Give a general title to each selected group, write it down.

Evaluation of the assignment :

Level 1 - children easily connect individual objects into groups, focusing on their common, significant features, and give them the correct generalized names: "Plants", "Transport", "People", "Pets" ;

Fig. 5. To the task for the classification of visual material

2nd level - children correctly group objects, but the generalization is carried out mainly on the basis of the functional sign: "what is worn", "what is eaten", "what is moving".

3rd level - objects are combined according to the situational feature: people connect to the house - "they live here", animals - with plants - "they like it".

4th level - objects are connected by a non-essential attribute (color, size) or individual objects are allocated without any grouping.

Layout of figures (the technique of GF Kumarina, NA Tsirulik, N. Ya. Chutko).

Assignment of a task : revealing the ability to observe, classify and self-control in practical activities - when marking out and getting as many geometric shapes as possible on a rectangular sheet of paper.

Organization of work: Prepare sheets of white paper 12 x 16 cm in advance and templates of thin cardboard (rectangles - 6x4 cm, rectangular triangles with sides 3x2), simple pencils or markers. The form of work is individual.

Instructions. Imagine that we need to decorate the room with flags like this or that (samples of triangles and rectangles) are shown. Try to make so that on a sheet of paper you can get as many flags as possible. For this, you need to be economical when marking up.

Evaluation of the assignment :

In one version, children used triangles for marking, in the other - rectangles. General evaluation characteristics of the levels coincide; differences in the number of resulting figures are specified.

1st level - a triangle (rectangle) is selected from the set of templates; figures are rationally placed on the sheet, starting from its edge, with a tight abutment to each other. A maximum of 16 flags-triangles (8 flag-rectangles) are enclosed.

2nd level - due to the fact that the pattern stroke begins with some deviations from the edge of the sheet (either from the top or from the side), or because there are gaps between the individual figures, part of the templates placed on the sheet stands out beyond the edges of the sheet and when marking some of their sides are cut off.

3rd level - the figures are placed on the sheet irrationally, but nevertheless in their arrangement some attempts to observe a certain system are found. There are no more than 8 flags-triangles on the sheet (4 rectangle flags).

4th level - flags (4 triangles, 3 rectangles) are placed on the sheet without any system, chaotic. No more than 4 figures are sketched.

The performed works are considered collectively and in the joint discussion (mutual control) the advantage of choosing triangles is established, from which two times more flags are obtained than from rectangles. Correctly labeled children are cut out and colored.

It is possible that when a child does not need markup using pattern templates, he can guess in his mind about the advantage of using a triangle pattern, not a rectangular one. In this case, you should invite him to perform the task, and in the subsequent analysis of the work justify his choice, encouraging the classification of the proposed figures.

Diagnostic tasks allow to reveal the level of preparedness of preschool children for mastering general educational skills, which are priority for the future learning activity.

A more complete set of such tasks aimed at obtaining the first, initial ideas about children, preschool teachers, primary school teachers will be found in the manual "Methods of selecting children for correctional classes" (Edited by G. F. Kumarina, M., 1991).

The initial (starting) diagnosis of children in the period transitional from preschool childhood to the school year continues with subsequent constant monitoring of their progress, intellectual growth in the process of mastering the learning activity, thereby allowing the teacher to specifically direct correctional, individually dosed work.

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In accordance with Vygotsky's ideas about the leading role of teaching in the development of the child, the fulfillment of tasks aimed at correcting the shortcomings in the educational activity of schoolchildren is primarily aimed at their independence. However, they must also be prepared for such independence. It is necessary to be able to awaken the initiative, activity, for "every child, appearing in the light in the image of a person, must become a man. The adult together with the child creates in him the person. Nothing can replace the joint activity of a child and an adult .

The lack of preparation of many children (especially children of risk) for independence in learning activity is successfully overcome in conditions of organized pedagogical assistance. In cooperation with an adult, the child moves from the fact that he is at the level of the "nearest development zone" can do only with the help of an adult, to the fact that at the level of "current development zones" he can do himself. At the same time, interiorization is achieved - the transition from psychological existence as part of external practical activity to a different form - to existence as part of theoretical activity.

In the process of this formation of personality, the measure of assistance rendered to children gradually increases and appeals to new more complex intellectual formations. Assistance in the performance of study assignments can be of various types: stimulating, guiding and teaching

Children are not equally easy to help - the psychologists note. It follows that a child who is difficult to help simply needs more help, that he may be able to do a lot if he does it together with an adult.

Mastery of the teacher, in particular, consists in the ability to determine the measure and nature of the assistance needed in each particular case, as well as in the knowledge and the correct choice of the methods that will ensure it in the best way (GF Kumarina, 2001).

If the student is systematically independent in the performance of training assignments, then, without delaying it in development, it is necessary to increase for him the degree of difficulty of assignments. The organization of educational activity can also be changed, which means creating more complex conditions for its implementation.

Thus, the logic of the work on eliminating the shortcomings in the school activities of the schoolchildren provides for the provision of the necessary dosage assistance to each student in the decision of specific study assignments with a focus on his subsequent independent actions.

Let us concretize what has been said, referring to some examples of study assignments in accordance with the types of general educational skills that we have identified.

1. Assignment for observation , classification and self-control (see page 168)

Children when learning the sound and the letter a consider the picture on the corresponding page of the alphabet and must answer the question why this picture is made to this page.

The first measure of help is the stimulating one: "List (about yourself) everything that is depicted in the picture (heroes of A.Tolstoy's fairy tale" The Golden Key or the Adventures of Pinocchio "and more additional details - stork, aster, cottage). This will help you answer the question .

Help in this case (in addition to training in pronunciation and conscious learning of the sound of "a") guides children to detect this sound in the name of each character, in the name of each depicted object. This tells them the answer to the question about the correspondence of the picture text of the textbook.

The second aid measure is a guidance tip: "Let's list together what is depicted in this figure: Buratino, Malvina, Arthmona ... The figure is clear?"

A joint examination of the picture organizes children's attention and helps to find a solution and the right answer.

The third measure of assistance is the training: "We will write down on the chalkboard the names of the characters and the names of the objects depicted in the drawing ... Which letter in each of these words repeats? Hence ... ". ( Picture, in

the names of the characters of which, in the names of the items depicted, the letter "a" is repeated, comes to the text familiar with the sound and the letter "a".)

2. Hearing assignment , classification and self-control (see page 168)

The first measure of the problem: "In this text there are words with the sound" n "

and those in which this sound does not exist; It is necessary to name only those words in which this sound is .

Second aid measure: "Words:" Do Vera "need to be named?" ( No ), ... folder? ( Needed ). And now, name all the words that are required by the order.

The third measure of help: "Together we will choose and name all the necessary words. Together we will check them using the text of the alphabet .

3. Reader , Classification and self-control (see page 168)

The first measure of help: "In the text there are words with the letter" k "at the beginning of the word, there are words with this letter in the middle and at the end of the word. Words with the letter "k" at the beginning and end of the word must be written out. "

Second aid measure: "Do you need to write out the word" Nikita "? ( No, the letter "to" is in the middle of the word ); And the word "How"? ( Must, the letter "to" and at the beginning, and at the end of the word ). Then carry out the task yourself, check yourself.

The third measure of help: "We do the job together, together we check what happened".

4. Assignment for observation , generalization and self-control (see page 168)

The first measure of help: "You already gave the names to this drawing. Remember?

The second measure of help: "Remember what names you gave this drawing. Now you can improve your previous answers. Do it .

The third measure of help: "Why" Hide and Seek "is the best of the titles you suggest to this drawing?"

5. Task for hearing y generalization, self-control (see page 169)

First aid measure: "Can I give the title to this text?"

The second measure of help: Remember what names you are for him

already found. Do you want to improve your previous answers? How?

Third aid measure: "Why does the title" Circus "most accurately disclose the content of this text?"

6. Reader , generalization , self-control (see page 170)

First aid measure: You can think of a name for this

the text of your alphabet? .

Second aid measure: "Interesting story" - can this be called this text? ( Yes, but ...). And what is the best way to name it, or rather?

The third measure of help: "We come up with the title of the story all together. We will write down the variants of names on the board, we will discuss them. Choose the most appropriate .

Incentive assistance organizes the child, sharpens attention, puts it into work, clarifying the training task. Having received this help and having coped with the task, the child affirms in the possibilities and, that is not less important, in the future more successfully, more quietly and faster carries out similar tasks. In its appointment of additional disclosure of what the training task is, stimulating assistance provides for a corrective effect on the information-oriented part of the training activity. You can not proceed to the next stage until all that is connected with the preceding one is realized.

Guiding aid leads the child from sharing the first operational step with the teacher to the next stage, but already more independent; has a corrective effect on information-oriented and operational-performing activities.

Teaching aid , first, does not leave the child behind the backdrop of failure to complete the assignment, and second, from actions by analogy (direct instruction) translates into more and more conscious and independent actions. Teaching assistance aims to correct the impact on all parts of learning activities with insufficient autonomy of children and under the direct supervision of the teacher, and sometimes with his complicity.

Even when providing the greatest, teaching assistance, children follow the teacher not mechanically, but think about it, realize the proposed solutions and their answers.

Correcting the shortcomings in the control and correctional part of the educational activity is primarily facilitated by the switching of children from monitoring the results of their actions on the part of the teacher to their own, personal control, which teaches them to self-test and self-control. Therefore, assignments aimed at the formation of the student's learning activity and correction of its shortcomings must end with the teacher's suggestion "Test yourself according to the textbook" and questions "Whose answer is whose solution is better?" Why? Mastering the skills of self-testing and self-control is facilitated by the adoption of correcting children's own mistakes in the work done by a color different from the color of the working pen (for example, red), emphasizing the importance of searching and detecting errors, with the agreement that the teacher controls the work only after this (for example, green pens). Gradually shrinking editing of the teacher convinces the student of his own abilities, increases his confidence in himself, leads to a certain independence, while not excluding the awareness of the limits of his own forces.

The work to eliminate the shortcomings of the control-correctional part of the learning activity accustoms children to the final and to the current self-control ( This part of the task is executed correctly, you can proceed to the next one ").

The importance of targeted, individually metered assistance to students in the work on the formation of educational activities and correction of its shortcomings should be emphasized also because the child's sensitivity to help, the ability to use it, transfer the way of activity learned from the help provided to solve similar educational problems in the pedagogical psychology is considered as the most reliable way to determine the level of development of the child, his learning ability (NA Mencinskaya, 1977, GF Kumarina, 2001). As already noted, in addition to directly educational significance, self-testing and self-control skills also possess an extremely important property for personal development: the possibility of a realistic view of oneself, reflection, and quality, so essential for the successful life of a person, to achieve significant results in the most multifaceted life manifestations. Positive reflection, the opposite of the destructive, neurological, leads to the fact that the child gradually becomes the subject of his life activity, acquiring the inner engine of development, and on this basis also the responsibility for the emergence of his personality, becomes the author of his biography .

Monitoring the success of children in mastering learning activities

Recommendations for monitoring and monitoring the success of children in mastering learning activities and correcting its shortcomings must be preceded, first, by the notion that it can not be successful if the child is in a learning environment appropriate to his physical and psychological health, its age and individual characteristics; and secondly, by the fact that the appeal to the notion of school success is becoming more widespread along with the usual concept of "academic performance," usually expressed in grades.

The concept of school success reflects fairly broad information about the student, such as those that characterize not only academic performance, but also specific features of his personality, which are inseparable from the influence of the school and social environment. This gives the concept of school success a great focus on the person-oriented pedagogy of our time, on changing the installation of the "child for school" to install the school for the child & quot ;.

In connection with the statement of this concept in pedagogy, the concept of "pedagogical diagnostics" differs from the more familiar "medical diagnosis". Definition, specificity of the tasks of pedagogical diagnostics and, most importantly, the possibility of outlining correctional strategies for finding the backwardness of schoolchildren in learning and development, DB Elkonin, associated with its consequences, such as correction-pedagogical measures conditioned by diagnostics; their implementation is not for individual mental functions (perception, attention, memory), but for the content of all learning activities, based on the consideration of pre-school preschool childhood.

Characteristics of school success of students is associated with testing, with special test programs. Certain detachment of these programs from the pedagogical reality defended the teachers for a long time (as well as their comparison with pedology, at one time sharply rejected).

The modern teacher is increasingly turning to the diagnostic component of learning in order to realize the idea of ​​his active role in actualizing the sometimes dormant creative forces in the child.

Specific psychological and pedagogical methods have been created specifically for pre-school teachers and teachers of general education schools, which allow to diagnose the success of children in learning and development and provide them with the necessary pedagogical support.

Noting the importance of psychological and pedagogical diagnostics as one of the necessary components of the process of improving modern pedagogy, it is necessary to draw the teacher's attention to the fact that revealing the success of children in teaching, in mastering the educational activity is connected with the discovery of the result of internal impact on the student hidden from direct observation. Therefore, compact techniques, freed from the "battery of questions", from "overdiagnosis" (L.Ya.Yamburg, 1997).

The problem of the success of correctional-developing education is considered in various ways in the textbook "Correctional Pedagogy in Primary Education", it also identifies the approach to identifying the success of junior schoolchildren in mastering academic activity. These approaches are implemented in the following forms:

1. In the help given to children with three possible measures - stimulating, directing and teaching.

2. In the fixation of the level (with four possible) of independent fulfillment by students of study assignments. At the same level 1 is characterized by the correct performance of the task and sufficient development of verbal-logical thinking of children; The 2 nd level corresponds to the correct, but not complete, task at a combination of verbal-logical and visual-figurative thinking; The third level indicates that the task is performed correctly enough, but in the presence of actual or logical errors; Level 4 signals that the child is not ready for the job, it either fails or is not performed correctly.

The last two levels of performance of tasks, as a rule, are typical for children, who have predominantly visual-shaped, situational thinking.

Test tasks that reveal the possibilities for the development of children and the mastery of their learning activities, from time to time, from class to class, from year to year, can not be the same, but they must be identical - in terms of the reversal of the same skills, characterizing the learning activity, revealing this process both in statics (at a certain stage) and in dynamics (from one period of study to another). Training assignments do not replace test ones, as educational ones teach, and test ones reveal what has been achieved in teaching and development.

Texts and illustrations from textbooks for reading for students of primary (I-III) classes - "Native Speech", authors MV Golovanova, VG Goretsky, LF Klimanova .

Example 1. In the first class, using the "United States alphabet", students are invited to title a picture illustrating the story. (The level of the formed skills of observation, generalization, self-control is revealed.)

Organization of work : Front; on the desk of each student of the alphabet, opened on the page to the story "Blinders," a signed sheet of paper and a pen.

Instructions. Consider carefully this picture, everyone needs to come up with a name for it. It should reflect the most important thing in the picture. Think about your name, check if it fits, and write down on your leaflets. I repeat again ... We start work.

Evaluation of the task '.

1st level - the name is complete and generalized, on the verbal-logical level it reflects the main thing in the plot of the picture ("The game of blindfolders").

2nd level - the main thing in the content of the picture is not reflected completely or in a visual-shaped, situational level ("Game"; "Children play", "Children play blind man's buffs").

3rd level - the plot of the picture is not detected and is not reflected. The name only indirectly, remotely stands for it ( Fun & quot ;, Catches ).

4th level - the title even indirectly does not reflect the main thing in the plot of the picture ("Girls and Boys", "Summer", "At the dacha").

Example 2. The same task - to head a picture - is offered to the same students, but already to second-graders, which allows to reveal the dynamics of the success of schoolchildren in mastering these general educational skills.

Instructions: View the drawing (to the story of I. Sokolov-Mikitov, beginning with the words "The blue cloud rolled up").

You do not need to read the story yet, but you need to come up with a name and write it down to the picture that illustrates it. Then check yourself.

Evaluation of the assignment:

1st level - the title is correct, sufficiently generalized, corresponds to the content, details of the drawing (for example: "Rainbow and mushroom rain").

Level 2 - the title is correct, but reveals the picture descriptively ("In the picture we see a rainbow and a mushroom rain"; "We see a rainbow and a mushroom rain"), not generalized and not exact ("Summer rain", Summer rain *).

3rd level - the content of the picture is even less accurate, it does not reflect the essential in the drawing ("Rain", "It's raining", "About the rain").

4th level - the name of the nc corresponds to the figure: the children say either "Severe rain" when the picture shows a bright distance, impossible with heavy rain, you see large but rare drops of rain, or "Autumn rain" when there are no autumn signs - grass, bushes and trees - everything is green.

Example 3. Students are invited to listen and headline the story of L. Tolstoy about how a little mouse told her mother that she saw a terrible cock and a peaceful cat.

>

The level of formation of the skills of listening, generalization, self-control is revealed.

Instruction. Listen carefully to the story of L. Tolstoy, which does not yet have a title. Everyone should come up with a name for him, think about whether it is suitable, and write down. Is everything clear?

Evaluation of the assignment:

1st level - the name is chosen correctly, it generically and fairly accurately reveals the content of the story, in some cases through the characterization of the main characters ("Silly Mouse", "Mouse Error"), in others - in the form of an ironic definition Scary cock and peaceful cat ).

2nd level - the name is given correctly, but with a certain descriptive reflection of the content ("How the mouse was mistaken", "About the clever mouse and the silly mouse").

3rd level - the main thing in the story (mouse error) is not understood and not reflected ("Mouse, cock and cat", "About the mouse and a small mouse").

4th level - the task is not executed; children retell the content instead of logically working out its meaning.

Example 4. A similar task is given to the same children, but already in the third grade: to come up with a name for I. Sokolov-Mikitov's story beginning with the words "The blue cloud has rolled and zashumela .

Instruction. Listen to the story of Sokolov-Mikitov and title it. Check yourself and write your name on the leaflet.

Evaluation of the assignment:

1st level - the name corresponds to the contents of the story, given at the verbal-logical level ("Thunderstorm, mushroom rain and rainbow").

2nd level - the name corresponds to the content of the story, but is presented descriptively ("About how the storm changed the mushroom rain with

rainbow ).

3rd level - the title incompletely reflects the content of the story ("About the storm", "About the rainbow", "About how the summer rain came").

4th level - the task is not performed, instead of generalizing the content of the story, it is retelling ("The cloud is farther, the thunder is thinner ...").

Example 5. The task uses two parts of the story I. Sokolov-Mikitov & "Red Summer" - the level of the formed ability of reading, classification and generalization, self-control is revealed.

Instructions. Read the story carefully, think about which groups you can divide those objects, objects, phenomena that it refers to. What groups can be singled out, everyone decides on their own. L answers should be written one for each form: The story says: 1) about this and that; 2) about ... (hereinafter referred to as an enumeration), etc. .

Is everyone clear? Start the job, then test yourself.

Evaluation of the assignment :

1st level - an exhaustive classification of all the information in the story, correct generalizations. On individual sheets it is written:

The story says:

1) about the plants that grow on the river, near the river: flowers - lilies, water lilies, water mush, kashka, bells, dandelions; grass - floating grass, grass, plantain;

2) about birds: a duck with ducklings, swallows;

3) about insects: midges, dragonflies, bees, shuttle spiders, grasshopper;

4) about the fish: the carp, the schweren. "

2nd level - the classification is incomplete, with insufficient generalization, in all cases all the data are taken into account: * 1) on lilies, water lilies and kashchinki; 2) about ducklings and ducks; 3) about bees, grasshopper; 4) about carp and pike

3rd level - to the flaws marked at the 2nd level, logical errors are added: "1) about the colors: lilies, kashke; 2) about ducks;

3) about the dragonfly; 4) about fish: pike, carass; 5) about insects: bees *.

4th level-extraneous objects are added to the mistakes of classification and generalization of the main information of the story: 1) about mush and flowers; 2) about ducks and perch ... & quot ;. Instead of logically exploring the text

it is retold ( 1) on the river of a lily, water lilies; 2) the duck teaches ducklings *).

In some cases, the level of the task can be intermediate (for example, between 2 and 3, 3 and 4: 1) about lilies, 2) about ducklings, 3) about paunchy carp, 4) *).

Example 6. The same students, but already in the third grade, they perform the test task, which uses all three parts of I. Sokolov-Mikitov's story * Red summer * .

Instructions. Read the whole story carefully, "Red summer, establish which groups can be divided into what it says. Make up such groups by including in each and every one that relates to it. The division into groups is done by oneself. The answers should be written on the sheets of the same for all forms: "The story says: 1) about this and that and that; 2) about (further follows the enumeration), etc ..

Evaluation of the assignment :

1st level - a complete classification of all the information in the story, the correct generalizations:

The story says:

1) about the plants that grow on the river, near the river: flowers - lilies, water lilies, water mush, kashka, bells, dandelions; grasses - floating grass, grass, plantain, sedge; cereals - rye;

2) about birds: a duck with ducklings, swallows, larks, a hawk;

3) about insects: midges, dragonflies, bees, shuttle spiders, grasshopper;

4) about fish: carp, pinhole.

2nd, 3rd, 4th levels - similar to those described in Example 5.

By combining efforts to shape the success of educational activities and the development of general intellectual skills, the educator should always remember that children, even in a favorable learning environment, corresponding to their psycho-physiological and psychological capabilities, make their own progress in their own rhythm, in their time mode . Helping the child, taking into account his individual problems, helps him to realize his potential, become more confident, and stimulates further development.

Assignments - tests aimed at identifying the success of children in learning and development should not be excessively simple, such that they do not encourage the disclosure of optimal opportunities for children. They also should not repeat those that were before, so that the already familiar execution process is not reproduced from memory, without reflecting the true progress associated with the adequate application of the acquired intellectual skills in new, unexpected conditions.

The relationship between the success of students with the volume and quality of the care provided contains another criterion for determining the effectiveness of this process, namely, the time during which the amount of assistance needed for each one for correct and independent activity is reduced.

Thus, with the dosing of the assistance provided to children in the performance of the study assignments, two criteria for determining the effectiveness of the formation, prevention and correction of the shortcomings in the educational activity of schoolchildren are linked - the measure of the care provided and the time required for each student to acquire independence in mastering knowledge (these indicators also lead to such integrally significant criteria for the success of schoolchildren, as learning ability). Determination of the effectiveness of the formation and correction of the shortcomings in the educational activity of schoolchildren, taking into account and fixing the dosed care provided to them, is also associated with the disclosure of ways to acquire independence in this process, from the start to the finish, because the child's sensitivity to help, the ability to absorb it, to solve similar problems is a reliable criterion for its learningability, an indicator of intellectual capabilities .

The execution of test tasks that provide for their different levels of implementation, according to the criteria of correctness and the ways of registration (verbal-logical or visual-figurative), further specifies the students' ascent from mastering the learning activity to mastering it in real indicators of their intellectual growth and development.

Game technologies and their role in the prevention, formation and correction of shortcomings in the educational activity of junior schoolchildren

The natural inclusion of the game in the educational activity of junior schoolchildren successively connects gaming technology with general pedagogical. Both those, and others, used in the teaching and development of junior schoolchildren, are revealed in the system of methodically formulated procedures, subject to a certain didactic justification.

Game technologies, supplementing educational and having common signs with them, nevertheless realize not leading but leading activity of junior schoolchildren. In combination with the presenter, they form a single direction of pedagogical work, which aims to master the learning activity, but, naturally, with the subordination of gaming technologies to the structural and content features of this particular activity and, consequently, when they repeat the typology of the study assignments.

Along with the overcoming of the disadvantages (especially children's risk), gaming technologies are endowed with the functions of prevention and correction of intellectual skills, which are of primary importance for the formation of educational activity of junior schoolchildren. The multifunctionality and multifunctionality of gaming technologies used in work, both with preschool children and with younger schoolchildren, also lies in the fact that their diagnostic capabilities make it possible to observe the learning process of learning activities not only in conditions of the schoolchildren's fulfillment of certain study assignments, but also in games.

Games with some changes caused by the need to correlate them with the program of formation of general intellectual skills that realize the educational activity of junior schoolchildren have been borrowed from different authors (A. Bondarenko, A. Bartashnikov and I. A. Bartashnikova, E. A. Kataeva and E. A. Strebeleva, etc.).

The specific role of gaming technologies in the prevention, formation of educational activity of junior schoolchildren and correction of their shortcomings is illustrated by examples of games that combine preschool and school childhood in certain methodological decisions.

Find your partner

The purpose of the game : help children learn skills of observation, classification of objects (for a given reason), self-control.

Organization: the game is frontal; pre-selected pairs of flags of different colors (for example, two red, two orange, two yellow) and a tambourine.

Progress of the game : the teacher gives out the check-boxes, one for each child. At the signal of the tambourine, the children run up and down the room, then stop at a different signal and everyone looks for their own pair - the one with the same color. When the game continues, the children again run up, and the teacher gives them flags of a different color. Focusing on the new color of the flag, they again look for their own pair. Errors are dealt with collectively.

Decompose Toys

The goal of the game: help children learn the skills of observation, classification of objects (on an independently found basis), self-control.

Organization: if the game is held individually, the child is presented with toys: a dog, a top, a frog, a pyramid, a toy, a doll, etc. If it is conducted in groups, this brings into play a certain competitive element, excitement. In this case, each group has its own set of toys. Decisions are judged on the correctness and speed of action. Errors are dealt with.

The game: the teacher proposes to arrange the toys in some order according to the base chosen by the children ( now they lie alternately ). The right decisions are approved, the wrong ones are dealt with.

Put where you need to

The purpose of the game : help children learn skills of observation, classification of images of objects (for a given reason), self-control.

Organization : carried out individually, pre-prepared cards with pasted or drawn geometric shapes - circles, squares, triangles of three colors (red, blue, yellow). Each figure of a certain color is repeated in triplicate, only 27 cards.

Playing the game : the child sits at the table in front of the teacher, who puts before him cards with the same shapes and different in color figures. On the table are the other cards on the table. The teacher takes one of them and asks the child to put "where necessary". When all the cards are laid out, the teacher asks the child: "What cards did you put here?" The correct answer is approved, the wrong one is suggested to be considered and corrected.

Hedgehogs

The goal of the game : the same as in the previous game, but the children themselves determine the basis for the classification.

Organization : The game is played front. All children receive pictures with images of hedgehogs and umbrellas of different sizes: two large and two small.

The course of the game: the teacher tells a fairy tale about hedgehogs: "In the woods there lived a family of hedgehogs, mother and two hedgehogs. Here once the hedgehogs went for a walk and went out into the field. There was no house, no trees. (Children are asked to put figurines of hedgehogs before them.). Suddenly the pope-hedgehog said: "Look, what a big cloud. Now it will rain. " "They ran into the forest," the mother-in-waiting suggested. "We'll hide under the tree." But then it began to rain, the hedgehogs did not have time to hide. You guys have umbrellas. Help the hedgehogs, give them umbrellas

After the game, it is understood whether the children are oriented in the classification of images by size.

Say the word with the sound you want

The goal of the game: help children learn the skills of listening, classifying objects (for a given reason), self-control.

Organization: the game is frontal; in advance you need to prepare the words that will be used in the game, and the ball.

Game progress: children become in a circle, the teacher suggests them to come up with words with the sound of "a". After a short pause, he throws the ball to one of the players. The child should name the word with the sound a ( Caps ) and throw the ball to another, etc. Then another sound is selected, and the children call the corresponding words. The mistaken one is out of the game. Errors are dealt with separately with each penalizer and collectively.

Same and different

The goal of the game: help children learn the skills of listening, classifying objects (on an independently found basis - adding words belonging to one group), self-control.

Organization: the game is frontal; Prepare a chain of words that belong to a common group, for example, a horse, a dog, a cow; spoon, fork, plate; dress, coat, skirt ...

Game progress : the game can be played in different ways: first the teacher suggests that the children continue the chain with words that are appropriate for this group; then you can suggest continuing the chain with those that do not fit.

Errors are parsed together.

Give the title

The goal of the game: help children learn the skills of observing objects or their images, generalization, self-control.

Organization: the game can be played either individually or frontal; before the students on the table are either objects belonging to one group, or their images (for example, toys - a ball, a nesting doll, a doll, a typewriter).

Game progress: the teacher suggests viewing the objects (or their images) and giving them a common name. Wrong answers are dealt with.

Guess the puzzle

The goal of the game: help children learn the skills of listening, generalization, self-control.

Organization: the game is frontal; in advance, you need to pick up puzzles revealing the signs of objects (for example, "Looks, talks, sleeps, and not live"; "Two abdominals, four ears," etc.).

The course of the game: the teacher thinks of the riddle, and the children must guess about what or who it is about. Wrong answers are dealt with.

The intermediate position between the game and the educational activity is occupied by the actions of children with a working notebook - a didactic manual developed by EA. Mladkovskaya.

This work involves strengthening the meaningfulness and independence of children's actions when referring to the texts of the notebook, accompanied by drawings and diagrams.

The special significance of using this manual is the ability to provide the child with essential assistance in mastering verbal-logical thinking with simultaneous reliance on visual-figurative (artistic) thinking.

The assignments of the workbook, supplementing the reading textbooks, are designed to help senior preschool children and junior schoolchildren in the formation and development of general intellectual skills in their correlation with the typology of study assignments reflecting the structural and content features of learning activity. Let's consider separate tasks.

/. Formation of observation skills , classifications (on a given or independently found basis), self-control

Instruction 1. Consider the drawing, which depicts subjects that are part of the plot action of the well-known children of the United States folk tale, paint only those that the soldier will need to weld porridge. Check yourself (see Figure 6).

Instruction 2. Consider the picture based on the tale of KI Chukovsky Fedorino Mountain (see Figure 7). Divide into groups what is depicted on it. Objects that belong to one group, underline one color of a pencil (pen, felt-tip pen), in another - with another color.

2. Forming the skills of observation, generalization, self-control

Instructions: Consider the picture based on the fable of IA. Krylov's "Swan, Cancer and Pike" (see Figure 8) and give it your name. Test yourself.

3. Formation of listening skills, classification (on a given or independently found basis), self-control

Instruction 1. Listen to two excerpts from KI Chukovsky's poem "Fedorino Mountain".

Here are the Fedorins of the cat. What do you skate like squirrels?

Broke the tails ... Do you run outside the gate,

Hey you, silly cymbals, With sparrows yellow? "

Write out the names of the animals and birds that are mentioned in it. Test yourself.

Instruction 2. Listen to the names of the familiar works of you Geese-swans & quot ;, Skylark & ​​quot ;, Kitten & quot ;, Philipp & quot ;, Old Man -year & quot ;. Recollect, about what in them it is told. Divide these names into groups. Write each group in a separate column. Test yourself.

4. Formation of listening, generalization, self-control skills

Instructions: Listen to the text:

"Listen, Hare, everyone says that aspen passion is bitter. And you gnaw her and do not even frown!

Fig. 6. To the task of observation, classification and self-control according to instruction 1

Fig. 7. To the task of observation, classification and self-control

Instruction 2

Fig. 8. To the task of observation, generalization and self-control

- And I, Soroka, use aspen on the third dish. When the first is fresh air, the second - jumping in the snow, and bitter aspen on the third sweeter honey will seem! "

Give it a name and write it down. Test yourself.

5. Formation of reading skills for classification (for a given or self found basis), self-control

Instruction 1. Read the verses

Bees in the field flew, Buzzed and sang. Bees sat on flowers. We are playing -

You drive.

In winter and summer -

One color?

Without effort, you can not even catch a fish from the pond.

In Ivanov's yard, the water is on fire.

The village extinguished the fire, And the fire was not extinguished. Grandfather Foma came, Deleting his beard.

He drove the people into the barn, Zatushil a fire alone.

Connect them with the arrows with their corresponding names. The Riddle The Riddle The Counting Proverb

Test yourself.

Instruction 2. Read the list of heroes of the fairy tale "Cockerel and Bean Pig": cockerel, mistress, chicken, cow, blacksmith, master.

Divide them into groups. Those who can be attributed to one group, underline one color. Test yourself.

6. Forming the skills of reading, generalization, self-control

Instructions: Read the excerpt from a story by LN Tolstoy How I was in a forest caught by a thunderstorm. "

When I was small, I was sent to the forest for mushrooms. I went to the forest, dialed the mushrooms and wanted to go home. Suddenly it became dark, it began to rain and it thundered. I was frightened and sat down under a big oak tree. The lightning flashed so bright it hurt me, and I squeezed my eyes shut ...

Give it a name. Write it down. Test yourself.

In conclusion, it should be emphasized that the game and educational activities constitute frontier and successive forms of life activity of preschool children and junior schoolchildren. Accompanying the child in his preschool childhood, the game continues in the school. But, carrying out in the preschool period the function of preparation for school, it must be purposefully subordinated to the task of forming prerequisites for mastering learning activity.

Considering the game as a link between preschool and school childhood of a child, one must keep in mind different approaches to the problem of the formation of educational activity in younger schoolchildren and various technological solutions to this problem. One such decision is to focus on the formation of the child's psychophysical functions, to develop intellectual skills in their separate and independent significance.

Without denying the possibility of such a strategy, we can also recognize that when using the potential of the game in the formation of training -

No activity and correction of its shortcomings, another strategy can be no less successful. The development of preschool children and junior schoolchildren is not based on individual functions or on individual skills, but on their formation and improvement in unity determined by the structural and content features of learning activity in conditions when the game and learning activity are successively connected, complementing each other.

The significance of the game in the life activity of preschoolers and junior schoolchildren, the naturalness of the combination of play and learning activity, reflect the real direction of the modern school to solve the problem of maximum development of each student and at the same time to improve the content and procedural components of students' knowledge (directly knowledge and training skills). The main thing that determines all the principal approaches is the formation of children's learning skills, independently acquire knowledge - qualities so necessary both in school and outside it throughout the life of a person.

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