Research Education Model
The research (search) educational model is characterized by a number of fundamental distinctive features:
- Training is carried out in the course of research activities, including such elements as problem statement, data collection, hypothesis advancement and testing, experimentation, modeling.
- As the subject-matter material of the study, along with specially prepared educational material, additional information collected and attracted by the students themselves is used. A special place is occupied by mastering the most procedural aspect of research activity.
- The training is carried out in the context of the development of concrete real and pseudo-real projects that have high personal significance for the learner. The importance of training is ensured, first of all, by its connection with individual students' experience, by correlation with the life context.
- Wide introduction in the educational process of gaming methods, constructive discussions, modeling of decision-making processes. Of particular importance for achieving didactic goals is the use of modeling life reality in the learning environment, subject and role simulation.
- The priority of productive creative activity of students, the use of reflection, feedback, special methods for the development of effective thinking.
Within the framework of this model, the character of instruction changes, its main meaning becomes the mastery of a new, personally significant experience, which in turn stimulates internal motivation. The teacher is given a role not so much as a mentor, as a more experienced colleague.
The main types of educational activities are systematic, specifically organized research, problem solving, communicative dialogue, discussion activity, game simulation and simulation, above-subject search activity on the organization of students own knowledge, reflection.
Pedagogical landmarks are shifting from the acquisition of ready knowledge to synthesis, "growing" new knowledge, mastering the methodology of their comprehension and application, mastering the ways of productive activity, reflection, search for personal senses. An attitude is established on the person's research position, the active nature of its interaction with the cognizable reality. This setting is reflected in the content orientation of training, determines the increased attention to the procedures that ensure the search activity of students. The process of exploratory learning activity in many cases becomes closely aligned with the main content of training. Then the psychological-didactic means of implementing the research model become elements of the content of the learning process. As such elements can be distinguished:
1) purposeful mastering of the methodology of productive search activity;
2) the formation of a culture of reflective thinking;
3) special training in the procedures for discussion and discussion;
4) developing and mastering the methodological foundations of educational games;
5) harmonization of intellectual-emotional interaction in the learning process;
6) the reflection of the learning process and its optimization.
Thus, mastering the methods and procedures of productive creative activity and effective communication becomes a special didactic goal. Practical methods of its achievement will be considered in the following paragraphs.
In traditional educational schemes, there is a contradiction between the pre-determined content of education and the possibility of changing it in accordance with the changing circumstances, situational needs and interests of the student, as well as the freedom to choose the types of learning activities. In research models, this contradiction is resolved by the transfer of the initiative in organizing its educational knowledge to the student, but this is possible only in the case of personal significance of the educational information and its connection with the student's immediate pragmatic experience.
As a result, a number of specific requirements arise for the content of training and the organization of the educational process. We will consistently formulate these requirements.
1. When interacting with the educational information, the learner should have dissatisfaction with the existing ideas, a sense of their limitations, inconsistency with respect to the natural scientific picture of the world.
2. The content of the subject should be distinguished by leading, nodal concepts. The volume of the broadcast information must meet the principle of the necessary minimum. Acquired knowledge must meet the criterion of future demand.
3. Educational information should be meaningful, draw on the students' own experience, meet their needs and interests.
4. New concepts and concepts must have a certain heuristic and constructive nature, in other words, they must be means for solving significant problems, have explanatory and prognostic properties, and stimulate the emergence of new ideas and concepts.
5. The content of educational information, in addition to scientific facts, concepts, theories, ideas, hypotheses, should reflect the ways and logic of the development of science, theoretical and empirical methods of obtaining new scientific knowledge, the processes of changing scientific concepts and paradigms.
6. It is necessary to allocate a special unit designed to master the methodology of research and creative activity, in spite of the fact that in part these tasks are being handled in the context of actual educational research.
Analysis of the basic requirements for the organization of the educational process makes it possible to identify the most important (some of them are determined by the relevant requirements for the content of education).
1. It is necessary to constantly put students in the position of researchers, pioneers. Encourage them to seek independently, discover the necessary knowledge.
2. The study of the material must be accompanied by the correlation of specific particular facts with cognitive structures, patterns, laws. Only in this case, students will be able to master the ways of cognitive activity in the process of learning information.
3. Important activity of students in the organization of the educational process. They themselves should take part in the selection of training problems, in developing an action plan and methods for their solution.
4. It is necessary to simulate situations as often as possible, when the phenomena and patterns that are being studied come into conflict with existing ideas.
5. It is necessary to strongly encourage students to formulate their ideas and ideas, express them explicitly, put forward alternative explanations, assumptions, guesses.
6. It is important to provide an opportunity for learners to explore their ideas and assumptions in a free uninhibited environment, discussing them in small groups, applying them to a wide range of situations, areas, so as to be able to assess their applied value.
7. It is necessary to take into account the individual psychological characteristics of students, preferred intellectual strategies, styles of thinking, to use all opportunities for developing creative potential.
Thus, in the research model, the content of educational information and the organization of the educational process solve the tasks of not only the formation of new, but also the restructuring, the systematization of existing knowledge. It is especially paradoxical, at first glance, that the preliminary information obtained can not so much facilitate as complicate learning cognition, and in any case require a rethinking, a change in the current system of views.Integrating the stated positions, it should be emphasized that the main methodological principle of this model is the need to stimulate cognitive activity of students by all means, use various types of educational dialogue, game interaction, reliance on imagination, analogy and metaphor, develop the creative potential of the individual. >
Consider the conditions and methodological recommendations necessary for the implementation of this principle.
Creating the conditions for productive creative activity presupposes the creation of an appropriate atmosphere in the teaching team. It is necessary to eliminate external and internal obstacles to the manifestation of creativity. To this end, it is necessary to create an environment where students feel that any consideration or thought deserves to be expressed in the team, and they will be accepted with goodwill, understanding, and not ridiculed or subjected to non-constructive criticism. Students should not be afraid to make a mistake. For this purpose, at certain stages of the learning interaction, it makes sense to refrain from any assessments. The position of the teacher should not dominate, it is necessary to form correct collegial relations. In the process of discussing and evaluating the ideas of a critic, it is possible and necessary, but it must be constructive and can not transform into individuals. When resolving disputes, there should be observed the rules for conducting discussions, by the way, these rules are practically mastered during the discussions themselves.
The next set of recommendations covers the conditions for increasing the productivity of creative activity. The leading role in this problem, of course, is the development of the imagination. Unfortunately, until now, in the framework of training sessions in secondary and higher schools, the educational goal of systematic development of the imagination is practically not put. At the same time, the fundamental possibility and importance of achieving this goal are of exceptional importance, since imagination and fantasy are the foundation, the foundation of creative thinking. There are various methods for developing fantasy, some of them will be considered in the relevant chapters. One of the main conditions for their implementation is to overcome internal limitations and stereotypes of thinking.
Another important task is the development of susceptibility, increasing sensitivity, breadth and richness of perception of the surrounding reality. This task should also be the subject of systematic training. From the methodological point of view, it is solved by the awareness, actualization and systemic association of all channels of perception of information: visual, auditory, kinesthetic. This question is considered in detail in the paragraph on the cognitive model of personality.
Closely related to the previous task of developing figurative thinking, mastering the productive use of metaphors, analogies, associations. Studies of creative processes show that the effectiveness of creative search is significantly increased due to non-obvious comparisons, unexpected associations. It is a common misconception that figurative thinking is a natural ability. However, this ability needs development, especially in childhood, and support in the future, in particular in secondary and higher schools. From the methodological point of view, this task is solved not just by the motivation for figurative thinking, but by the combination of spontaneity in the generation of images and the purposefulness of their comprehension, inclusion in the process of creative activity in solving problems.
The basis, the foundation of productive creative activity, of course, is the necessary amount of knowledge, although the dependence of creativity on awareness and awareness is ambiguous. Actually remembering information does not replace and in itself does not develop the ability to effectively think. In this case, it is advisable to talk about the system organization of knowledge, its development and optimization in accordance with the approaches and requirements formulated in the previous section.
In general, the development of productive thinking skills is an independent key educational goal. In the domestic and foreign pedagogy a lot of work has been devoted to this problem. In particular, the methods of development of critical, estimative thinking are considered in detail. It seems to us expedient to approach more broadly to this problem and to allocate in the general goal of the development of thinking a number of sub-goals, elements in the form of development of various types of thinking:
2) divergent, lateral, search thinking, which is the basis of creativity;
4) Integrative, integrative;
5) design, synthesizing,
6) prognostic, extrapolating, strategic;
7) critical, evaluation, reflexive;
8) operational, tactical.
Of course, the decomposition performed is very conditional, in most cases, all the specified elements are present to a greater or lesser degree in the thought process. However, when performing certain study assignments, one of the types of thinking activity, as a rule, dominates, and this is especially important to take into account from a methodical point of view.
No less urgent is the problem of development, activation of the subconscious, purposeful use of its capabilities to optimize the thought process, which, as is known, represents the unity of rational and irrational mechanisms. From a methodical point of view, the resolution of this problem must be carried out through comprehension of the laws governing the functioning of the subconscious and the purposeful development of intuition, overcoming the inertia of thinking, subconscious barriers and stereotypes that limit the creative abilities of the individual. Of course, this process is strictly individualized, different types of trainees need different types of learning activities for their self-development. The methodology for determining the psychological characteristics of a person, building a system of typologies, identifying individual intellectual styles and using this information to optimize the educational process is discussed in the following paragraphs.
Summarizing the presented positions, it is possible to draw some basic conclusions.
First, thinking lends itself to development, the formation of skills of effective thinking in research models becomes one of the leading goals of the educational process.
Secondly, from a functional point of view, thinking is an active process of interaction between an individual and incoming or (and) actualized information. Consequently, the main regularities of this process are formed as a result of the systemic integration of the laws of cognitive psychology and the fundamental laws of energy-information exchange. From this point of view, the optimal perception and mastering of the educational material is carried out only when the trainee makes certain operations with it, for example, establishes connections between the data, classifies them, makes generalizations, forms conceptual schemes, constructs hypotheses, identifies regularities, explains and gives forecasts.
Third, thought processes are formed in a certain sequence in increasing complexity, the learning strategies must correspond to this hierarchy. In particular, the search model identifies three types of educational and cognitive tasks: the formation of concepts, the interpretation of data, the application of rules and principles. We believe that this scheme should be supplemented with a block of study assignments of a project-constructive, synthesizing orientation. In addition, in the conditions of implementing this model in higher education, in individual cases it is necessary to limit oneself to observing a strict sequence of study assignments.
Concluding the rather detailed consideration of the research model of training, it should be noted that there are a number of limitations to the implementation of this model. First of all, it is fairly obvious that the condition for the possibility of this application is the existence of a certain base of fundamental knowledge. It is difficult to imagine that the entire educational process of a higher educational institution can be built on the basis of only this model. In addition, the high degree of uncertainty, dynamism, divergence of cognitive landmarks and criteria make it difficult to reproduce educational methods on a large scale, and also complicate procedures for assessing the results, quality and effectiveness of the educational process. All this determines the need to search for and develop models that are free from these shortcomings.
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