Resume - Pedagogy and psychology of nonviolence in education

Summary

So, in this chapter we have tried to show that the principle of nonviolence is the basis of humanistic pedagogy. It manifests itself in the belief in the possibilities of man and his ability to self-development. Therefore, education and training, the process of purposeful formation of the individual should take into account the subjective experience of children to the maximum extent, rely on it, using such technologies that would cause minimal damage to a person who is on the path of self-building of his personality. In its original meaning, this principle acted as the provision of conditions for freedom. Freedom in the history of humanistic pedagogy was understood at different times by different scientists and enlighteners in different ways: as the child's turning to his own experience (J.-J. Rousseau), as a spontaneous activity (M. Montessori), as a naturally developing atmosphere of cooperation (L. Tolstoy), as an expression of the spontaneous aspiration to creativity (KN Wentzel), as an opportunity to make a choice (modern ideas). In domestic science, the emphasis is on the person's ability to self-development (LS Vygotsky - "the child educates himself") and on the establishment of humane relations, taking into account the subject experience, acting as conditions for such self-development.

The goal of the pedagogy of nonviolence is to educate the younger generation on a non-violent basis and in a spirit of nonviolence, peace, respect for the rights and dignity of others, respect for nature, all life, conflict resolution without using open and hidden forms of coercion.

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As its main tasks are: 1) education in the younger generation of peace, the spirit of nonviolence; 2) humanization of the process of education and upbringing, interaction of adults and children.

The main directions of non-violence pedagogy are: education of peace; non-violent attitude towards nature; formation of non-violent attitude towards other people; the formation of non-violent attitude towards one's own personality.

In the education of peacefulness, two strategies are implemented. The first - the traditional one - is based on the technologies of non-violent attitude to the world; the second - is focused on actualization and formation of dialectical thinking of students, where the very problems of peace, violence and nonviolence are the subject of discussions, while it is assumed that changes in the cognitive sphere, world outlook will also have a positive impact on moral behavior.

As for non-violent attitude towards nature, here the central attention is paid to the formation of the motivational and value components of this relationship. The fact is that any technology associated with the formation of ecological consciousness and the corresponding behavior, already initially comes from sending a careful attitude to nature. At the same time, the question of what is underlying the premise is of fundamental importance: anthropocentric or eco-centric paradigm.

The direction associated with the formation of non-violent attitude towards other people is the most intensively developed in pedagogy and pedagogical psychology. This is not accidental, for a person his relationship with other people will always cause increased interest. Within the framework of this direction three fundamental problems are being developed: teaching children constructive, including non-violent communication; reduction and overcoming of aggressiveness; training in nonviolent ways of conflict resolution.

Finally, the least developed direction should be recognized as teaching non-violent attitudes towards oneself, which is closely linked to the problem of self-acceptance of the person, self-development and self-regulation, where the leading role is acquired by issues related to the development of non-violent self-education technologies. So far, only a small number of studies and practical developments exist in this plan.

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