School Policy in Asia and Africa, China, Malaysia...

School Policy in Asia and Africa


According to the speaker of the Guo Ming Yuan, who spoke in Beijing in 2002 at the World Forum on Comparative Pedagogy, there are two approaches to education in China: from the standpoint of a national culture and a multitude of cultures of ethnic minorities. "To take into account the peculiarities of the educational process among pupils of schools in areas where ethnic minorities live" for example, in the official recommendations for class leaders published in Harbin.


Malaysia is one of the states of the Third World, where in the conditions of economic achievements and social changes there are changes in the public consciousness, the desire for national consolidation is growing. The emergence of national identity causes the need for education to reach a compromise between multiethnicity and multiculturalism, on the one hand, and the Malaysian community on the other.

Pedagogical problems in multinational Malaysia have a clear political sound and are directly related to the future of the country. Malaysia needs to establish inter-ethnic relations as a guarantee of social stability. Representatives of various ethnic groups propose to establish a dialogue in the field of education in the name of building a civil society. The question of the place of culture of the Malays and national minorities in such a dialogue is being discussed. During the discussions, two different approaches emerged. One of them is based on the idea of ​​the cultural monopoly of the Malays. The other rejects such a monopoly and proceeds from the idea of ​​"one state, many nations".

Claims for a cultural and educational monopoly are made by the United Malay National Organization. This party represents the interests of the ruling elite, under whose control the school is located. Education and training in public schools is built on the Islamic tradition of the Malays. As a consequence, many students who belong to other ethnic groups and confessions (Indians, Dayaks, Chinese) are deprived of the opportunity to join their own culture.


The Republic of the Philippines belongs to the Third World countries, where the question of revising the state school policy with regard to the ideas of multiculturalism is being raised.

More than 50 million inhabitants of the Philippines are extremely diverse in ethnic composition. The most numerous are Visayas and Tagalas. Most of the population speaks Indonesian. Tagalog and English are widely spoken. Believers are mostly Catholics, some are Protestants, Muslims. Local traditional beliefs are also popular.

Multiculturalism looks like a promising policy for the formation of national unity in such a diverse ethnic, confessional and linguistic community. Speaking of this, the Philippine teacher E. Aberin proposes to take into account the social diversity of the population, believing that the ethno-cultural groups of the Filipinos are in the field of attraction of the three main cultural traditions: peasant with its folklore, craving for communality; Catholic, rooted under Spanish influence; Urbanism, which arose as a result of American colonization and accumulated individualistic and liberal values. Between the carriers of all subcultures, more general than distinctive is seen, which makes it possible to speak of the existence of the basis of a unified national culture. By education, it is proposed to simultaneously develop and bring together cultural traditions, enriching the national identity.

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