As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:


• what is the motive;

• hierarchy of needs;

be able to

• Analyze cognitive processes;


• the skills of interpreting different concepts of power;

• Learning and understanding skills.


A person lives in a situation of intense ideological and moral motivation. Motif (from Latin moveo - moving) is a material or ideal object that induces or directs the activity or act and for the sake of which it is carried out. In modern psychology, the individual is motivated in general as a single integrated personality. This assumption must be taken into account not only in theory, but also as the basis of experimental research. For the theory of motivation, it follows from, in particular, that the individual as a whole is motivated, and not any part of it (the person wants, and not his stomach - under the influence of hunger all the functions of man change: perception, memory, emotions, content thinking, etc.).

Hunger and other physiological motivations can not serve as a paradigm for all other motivational states. The relatively isolated nature and localized somatic basis of physiological needs make them convenient for studying by the usual methods. Hence, the preference given to them as primary needs, most clean examples of motives. At the same time, physiological needs can not serve as a paradigm for other motives either, firstly, they are not predominant, and secondly, the majority of the motivations that guided the individual can not be isolated, does not have a localizable somatic basis, and refers to the individual in whole. It is very likely that, no matter how much we know about hunger, we could never fully understand the need for love. It is even more powerful, namely, that a complete knowledge of the need for love will help us learn more about the motivation of man in general (including hunger) than we could get from the vain study of hunger.

Our daily desires are usually a means to achieve other goals. Usually the analysis of conscious desire leads us to the discovery of the more fundamental goals of the individual. An increasingly deeper analysis of the chain of goals that explain each other (desires, needs) ends with ultimate goals that no longer require explanation and justification. These latter lie, as a rule, in the field of the unconscious, so the theory of motivation can not ignore the unconscious life.

The ultimate goals (needs) of people are much more universal, not depending on culture, than the ways of their implementation. The variety of intermediate goals and needs is explained by the fact that different cultures represent different ways of satisfying one and the same desire. In one society a person can satisfy his need for self-esteem, becoming a good hunter, in the other - scientists, etc. All these particular desires can have the same dynamics and one functional goal, not depending on the specifics of cultures.

A conscious desire or behavior can hide many unconscious motives. This is confirmed by the analysis of sexual desire, which in different individuals can mean different needs - in self-affirmation, safety, love, etc. This is evidenced by the fact that the same psychopathological symptom can express different, even opposite desires.

The motivational state is not some special state. Almost every state of the body is motivating. Any phenomenon in the body of dynamic psychology is considered in connection with another. From this it follows, in particular, that any state automatically generates a set of consequences - mental and somatic, i.e. has a motivating nature. Motivation is constant, never ending, fluctuating and complex, it is almost universal characteristic of almost every state.

Motives are related to each other. It is typical for a person that he wants something almost all the time. The satisfaction of one need gives rise to another, and the emergence of each new need is due to the partial satisfaction of a number of others. Hence the impossibility to consider isolated motivations, without violating the integral picture of mental processes. Motivations are dynamically linked to each other and reveal a hierarchical organization.

A simple listing of needs makes no sense. Atomistic lists of needs motivating human behavior are meaningless, because:

- implies the equality of the listed needs in terms of strength and probability of manifestation, whereas the probability of occurrence and strength of each need are different and depend on the degree of satisfaction of other needs;

- Assume the isolation and mutually exclusive nature of different needs, whereas the usual are their interconnection and overlapping;

- are made, as a rule, on a behavioral basis, ignoring the dynamic nature of needs (the differences between conscious aspects, the multiplicity of motivation);

- the number of possible needs depends on the fractionality of the analysis; a genuine classification should consider groups of needs that have an internal organization.

Classification of motivational life should be based on fundamental goals. Only the latter remain constant in that continuous stream that psychology imposes on the dynamic approach. In this connection, the basis of classification can not be either behavior, or private motivations that the individual perceives, but only largely unconscious fundamental goals or needs.

You can not build a theory of human motivation, based on the data obtained in the study of animals. Against the named behaviourist trend the following arguments are advanced: first, with the upward evolution of the evolutionary ladder, instincts increasingly appear as hereditary conditioned elements of behavior; secondly, the ways of satisfying physiological needs are becoming increasingly diverse (hunger is getting less and appetite is increasingly determining); finally, thirdly, the dependence of culture on adaptation tools is increasingly increasing.

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