SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIAL AND PEDAGOGICAL PROGRESS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERSONALITY
In this chapter, social institutions are considered as an important element of the society, their role and place in the system of pedagogical relations in the process of socialization of the individual are revealed. The chapter gives a socio-pedagogical description of the institutions of socialization of the individual, reveals the specificity of each individual social institution, in particular, the family, the educational institution as an official institution for the socialization of the individual, social social institutions, social and educational support services for the development of the individual in the process of socialization. The essence and content of the pedagogical potential of social institutions are described: content, assessment, forms and methods of its implementation.
As a result of studying the chapter, the learner must:
• the main characteristics of the social institution as an element of society and its pedagogical potential;
be able to
• organize the implementation of the pedagogical potential of the social institution in the educational process;
• A system of knowledge about the forms and methods of developing the pedagogical potential of a social institution.
Socio-pedagogical characteristics of institutions of socialization of personalityBasic concepts: society, social institution, types of social institutions of society, economic and social institutions, political institutions, socio-cultural and pedagogical institutions, normative-orienting, varieties of social institutions.
The concept of "social institution", its social and pedagogical aspects of existence
Social institutions are the most important element of the society, representing organized associations of people performing certain socially significant functions, ensuring the joint achievement of goals on the basis of the social roles performed by members assigned by social values, norms and patterns of behavior.
The concept of institute includes also a group of people performing certain functions. In this case, we can talk about the institution of class leaders, mentors, commissioners for the protection of the rights of minors, social educators, doctors.Various social spheres are intertwined in the social institution in a complex way: economic, political, moral, legal and other relations, which ensures continuity in the use of cultural values, transfer of skills and norms of social behavior, socialization person. Integration of individuals into an integral social association - group, community or society - presupposes not only the interest of people in the creation of such relationships, but also the availability of communication opportunities (language, symbols shared by all the value-normative system, etc.). This facilitates the organization of unions on the basis of common platforms for the realization of the diverse social needs of people.
In the same way, marriage and family institutions, public associations, political parties, institutions of law and order and social control are created. The disintegration of some social institutions can threaten the very life of people (for example, in the absence of law enforcement institutions or their inefficient activities), so the public is interested in the stability and effective functioning of institutions.
All social institutions are, to varying degrees, integrated into a system that provides them with guarantees of a uniform, conflict-free process of functioning and reproduction of public life. Despite the diversity of theories of social institutions, it is possible to identify common elements that characterize any social institution.
First, groups that have the beginnings of institutionalization, use certain ways of acting on behalf of group members as a whole; these methods do not depend on the personal interests of individuals included in the institution.
Secondly, any social institution performs functions (or tasks) of a different nature. Among them - the functions regulating the behavior of members of society, social groups; ensuring the sustainability of public life; implementing the integration and cohesion of institutional relations.
Third, within the framework of individual social institutions, a system of social roles is singled out. Their role structure is designated on the most various bases and depends on a floor and age up to a kind of employment and abilities; from relations to the existing norms of action in society, and also from the mechanisms of social control.
A social institution is a more complex formation of a society, because it involves people with their needs, abilities, activities and attitudes.
The normative-organizational nature of social institutions allows us to speak about their two types:
- state, official, legally fixed and provided with power social institutions with strict standards of their activities: parliament, Duma, government, city hall, court, prosecutor's office, army, school, university, family, police, prisons, educational colony, health camps , hospitals, museums, houses of creativity, clubs, cultural and sports institutions;
- public, unofficial social institutions of two types: legally formalized - parties, movements, unions, associations, firms; informal, legally uncommitted associations, groups, communities - creative collectives, criminal structures, underground organizations.
With all this, each social institution has its own structure and a certain normative activity: the charter, the code, the rules, the regulation, the conditions for entry and exit. Normativity is a guarantee of stability, stability of the institution.
The society can therefore be regarded as a system of social institutions of the city, each of which has its educational and life potential, actively used in social and pedagogical activity.
The structure of the social institutions of society is very complex. Firstly, because the human needs and interests stimulating the creation of these social institutions are complex and diverse. Secondly, social institutions are constantly changing. In the process of historical development of society, some elements of the structure of institutions can be lost, filled with new content, acquire new tasks and functions.
Thus, social institution is an education created to use various resources of society (society) to meet a specific social need, stabilize people's activities. The defining features of the social institution are considered to be the organization, the predictability of patterns of social roles and expectations, the clarity of social norms. As social relations become more complex, the number of social institutions is developing and increasing, and their differentiation. In the future, we will consider those of them in which educational functions and relationships are traced: family, school, peer group, etc.
Types and functions of social institutions
In modern society, we can identify the following social institutions: economic, ensuring the reproduction and distribution of material goods, the organization of labor, money turnover, etc .; political, associated with the performance of power functions; social (in the narrow sense of this concept), organizing voluntary associations, life activities of collectives, regulating people's behavior in the process of interaction, social relations; pedagogical, ensuring the transfer from generation to generation of social experience in various fields of knowledge; religious, regulating relations of people with representatives of religious structures (ministers of the church); reproductive institutions (institutions of marriage and family).
Each institution fulfills its own characteristic social function. The totality of these social functions is formed in the general social functions of social institutions as certain types of social system. These functions are very diverse.
Sociologists of different directions identified four main functions of social institutions: the reproduction of members of society; socialization; production and distribution; control and monitoring function.
Social institutions control the behavior of an individual through a system of incentives and sanctions defined by norms.
These norms regulate everyday contacts, various acts of group and intergroup behavior. They determine the order and the way of mutual behavior, establish methods for the transfer and exchange of information, greetings, addresses, etc., fix the rules of meetings, meetings, activities of any associations.
The social institution is characterized by the following features:
- it exists as a set of social norms and prescriptions that define the right types of behavior (required by society);
- it is closely connected with the ideology and the value system of society;
- institutional types of actions are controlled by society, and the institution itself controls the behavior of individuals;
- The social institution has the necessary material resources and resources.
Every social institution has:
• more or less clearly formulated goals of their activities;
• a set of social statuses and roles assigned to individuals;
• a system of sanctions by which the behavior of individuals is controlled;
• Specific private functions aimed at meeting needs.Social institutions, as well as each of the societies, have different resources and opportunities, among them the pedagogical potential that somehow participates in the socialization of children and adolescents.
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