Social norms of the European Higher Education Area: Bologna regulations
The United States, which signed the Bologna Charter in 2003, is moving towards integration into the European Higher Education Area. The interaction between the social norms of the EHEA and domestic higher education is carried out in two ways: 1) the orientation of the activities of United States higher education in the social norms of the EHEA; 2) the impact of United States higher education on the formation of the EHEA. It should be noted that the first direction of influence was clearly reflected in the structure and content of the US GEF HEI (see more about this in Chapter 2).
The tasks identified in the Bologna Declaration, which are of paramount importance for the establishment of the EHEA, include: - the adoption of a system of easily understood and comparable degrees;
- the adoption of an education system based on consecutive training cycles;
- the introduction of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (hereinafter referred to as ECTS), which facilitates the widest possible mobility of students;
- overcoming barriers to the effective free movement of students and teachers;
- cooperation in the development of comparable criteria and methodologies;
- assistance to the necessary European dimensions in higher education, especially in connection with cooperation between different educational institutions [23. 36].
Later, four more tasks appeared, three of which were added by the Prague Communiqué of the Conference of Ministers Responsible for Higher Education (2001):
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- education throughout life as an actual strategy for European universities;
- increasing the role of students in the implementation of the Bologna reforms;
- increasing the attractiveness of universities in Europe (the struggle for "minds, prestige, money").
The tenth task was identified in the Berlin Communiqué of the Conference of Ministers Responsible for Higher Education (2003):
- the synergy of a single educational and unified research space and the role of doctoral studies as the third cycle of the structure of higher education [27. 9].
All of the above tasks have a regulative character, i.e. are social norms. They regulate not random or unique situations, but standard, typical, widespread relations. Bologna's regulations as social norms "reflect the economic, political, socio-cultural level of the development of society. They clearly show the features of the historical development of society, national specificity, general cultural achievements & quot ;. Finally, in order to fulfill the functions of social regulation, all norms must be coordinated among themselves, interact, complement each other [48. Div. 4.1.5], i.e. be of a systemic nature. The role of the system-forming factor in the Bologna regulatory system is fulfilled by the very idea of building the EHEA.
The development of the EHEA is designed, monitored and adjusted in the activity of regularly held conferences of European ministers responsible for higher education in the countries participating in the Bologna process. This is reflected in the titles of the communiqué of these conferences: "To the European Higher Education Area" 2001 (Prague); Implementing the European Higher Education Area 2003 (Berlin); "The European Higher Education Area - Goal Achievement 2005 (Bergen); To the European Higher Education Area: Responding to the Challenges of a Globalized World 2007 (London); "The Bologna Process 2020 - the European Higher Education Area in the New Decade 2009 (Leuven/Louvain-la-Neuve).
The dynamics of the formation of the EHEA are clearly visible in the promotion and monitoring of the Bologna reforms carried out within the framework of the TUNING project. This project, launched in 2000, is a joint initiative of the European Commission and the European Association of Universities (EUA), in which universities from all countries participating in the Bologna process took part. Currently, the project is one of the most famous and effective tools for the modernization of the European education system. It is aimed at achieving the objectives of the Bologna Declaration at the institutional level and is multilevel in nature. Its task is to develop a common understanding for the EHEA of the content of the level qualifications and formulate appropriate formulations for learning outcomes in terms of competences.
Name TUNING ("Settings") was chosen to emphasize that universities are not striving for uniformity of educational programs or a single, defined, "prescribed" curriculum, but only to agreed parameters, convergence and a common understanding of the programs. Protecting the diversity of education in Europe from the outset has been an important feature of the project, which in no way attempts to limit the independence of specialists or the influence (authority) of national and local authorities [200. 4]. Often, in documents relating to the Bologna Process, references to the 1997 Lisbon Convention, where it is argued that "the great diversity of education systems in the European region is a reflection of its cultural, social, political, philosophical, religious and economic diversity, is exceptional A property that requires utmost respect " [23. 7].
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During the implementation of the TUNING project, five main areas of activity for the formation of the EHEA were chosen:
1) general competencies (or "portable skills");
2) subject-specific competencies;
3) approaches to learning and assessment;
4) the role of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (hereinafter referred to as ECTS) as a credit accumulation system;
5) systems to improve the quality of the educational process of universities.
The set of the listed five lines of development of the project is a unified system and allows universities to conduct the "setting" their educational programs, while not losing autonomy and opportunities for innovation [200. P. 13], to coordinate and direct the processes of modernization of the EHEA and national higher education systems, ensuring their convergence.
A comparison of the TUNING project through the EHEA, on the one hand, and the system of principles for the formation of OOPs that implement the GEF (on page 2.5), on the other, makes it possible to identify their structural unity.
Taking into account the special importance of the TUNING project for solving the problems of modernization of the European education system, the five directions of the development of this project were defined as the through-going content lines of this training manual.
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