Social pedagogy in the system of humanities and natural sciences
Basic concepts : interdependence and interdependence of sciences, philosophy, psychology, sociology, social policy, political science, anthropology, biology, social medicine, culturology, law, ethics, family social pedagogy, preschool social pedagogy, psychology of social and pedagogical activity, prenatal social pedagogy, social and pedagogical prevention of drug addiction, the history of social pedagogy, branch social pedagogy.
The place of social pedagogy in the system of human sciences can be revealed in the process of considering its links with other sciences. During the whole period of its existence, social pedagogy was closely connected with many sciences, which had an ambiguous influence on its formation and development. Developing in the bowels of pedagogical science, social pedagogy has acquired many interrelations and interdependencies by inheritance. Some of these relationships arose long ago, even at the stages of the separation and design of pedagogy as spiders, others are later formations, at the level of the formation of social pedagogy. Among the first, there were links between social pedagogy and philosophy, sociology and psychology, which are still a necessary condition for the development of social pedagogical and pedagogical theory and practice.
Let's imagine the relationship with each of the humanities and natural sciences (Figure 2.2).
The interpretation of the connections between philosophy and social pedagogy was for a long time of an opposition character.Today, the methodological function of materialistic philosophy in relation to pedagogy is universally recognized, which is quite legitimate and is conditioned by the very essence of philosophical knowledge, worldview by its nature and corresponding to the tasks being solved, to comprehend the place of man in the world. A significant influence today on social pedagogy is provided by social philosophy. From the system of philosophical views (existential, pragmatic, neopositivistic, materialistic, etc.), which the researchers of social pedagogy adhere, the directions of socio-pedagogical search depend on the determination of the essential, target and technological characteristics of the educational process, its relationship with the potential of the society, the laws its implementation in the conditions of education. In the formation of the content of social pedagogy, the basic laws of dialectical materialism are realized: the law of unity and struggle of opposites, according to which, for example, a person as an object of social education is considered simultaneously as a part of the society, forming its unity, and as an independent subject opposing the society; the law of transition of quantitative changes to qualitative, explaining the processes of qualitative change in personality under the influence of numerous stimulating and restraining factors of society; the law of denying negation, revealing the mechanisms of the development of the personality in the process of socialization, which provide the meaning of its conceptual-categorical apparatus.
The connection of social pedagogy with general pedagogy is the natural continuity of the theoretical foundations of pedagogical science and the containment of sociological tendencies in the development of social pedagogy itself. Integrating with sociological science, with its teaching about socialization and about society, social pedagogy remains a pedagogical science, treating society as a new pedagogical resource and an opportunity to solve problems of socialization, essentially pedagogical tasks.
The society for social pedagogy is of scientific interest from the point of view of implementing the pedagogical potential for resolving the problems of socialization of the individual or group, as well as its development (recovery) for the same purposes.
Any metamorphosis (interaction) with the potential of society is carried out using the principles, methods and forms of pedagogical science.
Fig. 2.2. Social pedagogy in the system of humanities and natural sciencesThe links of social pedagogy with sociology are traditional, as both work on planning social education, identifying the main trends in the development of particular groups or segments of the population, the laws of socialization and personality education in various social institutions . Sociology provides social pedagogy with the doctrine of society and about socialization, about management, methods of obtaining social and pedagogical information: interviews, interviews, questionnaires, interviews, analysis of performance and many others. Social pedagogy, in turn, provides sociology with data on the use and development (restoration) of the potential of the socium in social and pedagogical activity.
The relationship of social pedagogy with psychology is the most traditional. The requirements for understanding the properties of human nature, its natural and social needs and opportunities, taking into account social mechanisms, laws of mental activity and personality development, building education (education and training) in accordance with these laws, properties, needs, opportunities of the social environment become an integral part of the new industry pedagogical science. The most tangible relationship between social pedagogy and social psychology . And one and the other science develops by analogy on the basis of sociology, integrating with a certain field of sociological knowledge. The only difference is that social psychology in its development is based on the sociological doctrine of small and large social groups, and social pedagogy is based on the sociological doctrine of socium and socialization.
The connection of social pedagogy with social work is that social work is a practical field for implementing the ideas of pedagogical assistance to various categories of children and adults who find themselves in a difficult life situation. With social work, social pedagogy interacts at the level of social and pedagogical activity, which is the main means of realizing the ideas of social pedagogy in practice. At one time in the development of social pedagogy was the period when it was considered as a branch of social work and in science was presented in the form of the pedagogy of social work. At this time, pedagogical assistance to children and adults was mistakenly replaced by social assistance, which violated the natural process of development and social pedagogy as an area of pedagogical science, and social work as a field of sociological knowledge. In general, the development of the theory of social and pedagogical activity is largely due to social work in the depths of which a new type of professional activity, in content and, in fact, pedagogical practice, has undergone practical testing.
The connection of social pedagogy with political science is due to the fact that educational policy has always been a reflection of the ideology of the ruling parties. Social pedagogy seeks to identify the conditions and mechanisms for the emergence of a person as a subject of political consciousness, the ability to assimilate political ideas and attitudes in the conditions of a specific society. On this basis, social pedagogy actively interacts with social policy . This connection is expressed in the fact that social pedagogy in the study of the pedagogical potential of the society actively uses the potential of political parties as social institutions that are significant for resolving the problems of the socialization of the individual, and consequently, relies on the provisions of social policy on the leading forces of society, social activity of various social and age groups the population, as well as the forms of implementing the pedagogical potential of public organizations and youth associations.
The connection of social pedagogy with pedagogical anthropology is seen in the field of human development in the process of social education. Pedagogical anthropology is a human study that serves the upbringing and education of people. The subject of pedagogical anthropology is the object of pedagogy - a person developing. It seeks to understand how a person is humanized and how people of different ages influence each other; how much we will bring up the child at different stages of life; what are the causes and processes of personality formation; What is the nature of the various groups (the number of members from two to the whole human race) and how does the personality interact with them. The laws of individual and group development become the basis of the pedagogical council, warning of dangers. Exploring its object, pedagogy is able to develop an object aimed at interaction of people, entailing the desired changes in the motivational, intellectual, behavioral spheres of the personality.
Social pedagogy presupposes penetration into the nature of a person, understanding of his essence. In the qualitative transformation of man, it proceeds from the truth of human nature in its real historical being. If pedagogy wants to educate a person in all respects, then she must first know him in all respects, "- this position of K. Ushinsky was and remains unchanged the truth for the entire realistic national science of education.
Knowledge of the whole breadth of human life (K.D. Ushinsky), extracted by psychology, philosophy, history, sociology, pedagogy, other sciences about man, religion, art, is called upon to give the foundation for natural education.
Ethics is a doctrine of morality, a person's moral learning of reality. Social pedagogy uses ethical knowledge about morals and morals for the development of moral norms and moral rules of interaction between people, between man and society for the realization in the social and pedagogical activity of the moral character of those relationships between people that stem from their professional activities.The link between social pedagogy and law is manifested in the systematic reliance on the regulatory framework that regulates the implementation of social and pedagogical ideas in the practice of professionals of various profiles who help people with problems of socialization. Social and pedagogical activity itself as a form of professional activity "man-man" requires constant legal support. For example, a huge role in the decision of social and pedagogical assistance to children and adolescents is played by juvenile law. The connection of social pedagogy with culturology is the realization of one of the basic principles of social pedagogy - the principle of cultural appropriateness, for which the social pedagogy actively uses the potential of cultural studies as a humanitarian science, consisting in studying the contents of various world cultures, forms and methods of realizing their potential in the everyday life of children and adults.
The problem of correlation of natural and social factors of human development is central for social pedagogy. It is also important for biology , which studies individual human development. Due to these coincidences, the connection between social pedagogy and biology is manifested in the use of laws and laws of human biological development at various age periods of its life activity. An important area of interaction between the two sciences is the healthy way of life of a person and the socio-pedagogical conditions for maintaining it.The connection of social pedagogy with social medicine has led to the emergence of correctional pedagogy as a special branch of pedagogical knowledge, the subject of which is the education of children with developmental disabilities in various social conditions. In connection with medicine (healthcare institutions as social institutions of society), it develops a system of means by which a therapeutic effect is achieved and the processes of socialization of children that compensate for their defects are facilitated. The connection of social pedagogy with mathematics is noted in conducting experimental research and development, during which social pedagogy actively uses various mathematical methods: mathematical statistics, mathematical data processing, etc. In turn, social pedagogy provides mathematical science with methods of developing the mathematical potential of the society and the forms of its implementation for resolving the problems of socialization of the individual.
Analysis of the links of social pedagogy with the above-mentioned sciences makes it possible to single out the following forms of their complementarity:
- the use of social pedagogy of basic ideas, theoretical provisions, generalizing the conclusions of other sciences;
- creative borrowing of research methods used in these sciences;
- the application in social pedagogy of concrete results of studies obtained in psychology, physiology of higher nervous activity, sociology and other sciences;
- the participation of social pedagogy in the complex studies of the individual and the social environment of his residence.
The development of interaction, creative links of social pedagogy with other sciences leads to the allocation of new branches of pedagogy - boundary scientific disciplines.
Currently, social pedagogy is a complex subsystem of pedagogical knowledge. Its structure includes:
• family social pedagogy, examining the main laws of family education and upbringing as a kind of social education on the basis of the realization of the pedagogical potential of the family as a social institution;
• psychology of social and pedagogical activity as an integrative field of psychological and pedagogical knowledge, revealing the internal resources and opportunities of this type of professional activity but solving the problems of socialization of the individual in the conditions of a concrete society
• prenatal social pedagogy - the field of pedagogical knowledge about the forms and methods of providing social and pedagogical assistance to adults at the stage of the birth of a child, the preservation of motherhood and paternity in various conditions of socialization on the basis of the realization of the pedagogical potential of the society;
• social and pedagogical prevention of drug addiction as a significant form of social and pedagogical activity, an integrative field of scientific knowledge of social pedagogy and narcology for resolving the problems of socialization of drug-dependent patients with the means of the pedagogical potential of the society;
• the history of social pedagogy, studying the development of social pedagogical ideas and practices of social education in different historical epochs.
The process of differentiation in various directions in pedagogical science continues. In recent years, such sectors as the philosophy of education, comparative pedagogy, etc. have emerged. Further integration of pedagogy with other humanitarian and natural sciences contributes to the emergence of new branches of pedagogical science and the expansion of the influence of social pedagogy on various spheres of life
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