SOCIALIZATION AS A SOCIAL-PEDAGOGICAL PHENOMENON
The content of this chapter reflects the sociological knowledge of socialization, its place and role in pedagogical science. The chapter reveals the interrelations and interdependencies between the concepts "socialization", "social education", "social education" and "social development", describes the features of socialization of different age groups of the population, as well as social and pedagogical problems of socialization of children and adolescents in various conditions of life.
As a result of studying the chapter, the learner must:
• Features of understanding socialization in pedagogical science as a field of scientific knowledge;
• features of socialization as an object of social and pedagogical activity;
• Specificity of social learning, social education and social development;
be able to
• analyze and study the basic characteristics of human socialization;
• a system of knowledge about the main types, features of the main stages of the process of socialization, the role and place of socialization in social pedagogy.
The role and place of the problem "socialization" in pedagogical science
Basic concepts : socialization, adaptation, assimilation of social experience, elements of socialization, types of socialization, personalization, identification.
The founder of the inclusion in the humanities of the term "socialization" is an American sociologist, Franklin Henry Giddings (1855-1931), who in his work "The Theory of Socialization" used it in a sense close to the modern one, - "the development of the social nature or character of the individual, the preparation of human material for social life."
In the future, in the scientific literature, the concept of "socialization" was considered as the process of assimilation of social norms and values, the process of entering a person into the social environment, into society. It should be noted that almost until the 80's. XX century, speaking of socialization, many scientists had in mind the development of man in the range of "childhood - adolescence."
By the middle of XX century. socialization has turned into an independent interdisciplinary field of research. Today, the problem of socialization or its individual aspects is studied by philosophers, sociologists, psychologists, teachers, jurists, representatives of other sciences.
Only in recent decades, childhood has ceased to be the only focus of interest of researchers, and the study of socialization has spread to adulthood and even old age.
Thus, socialization (from Latin socialis - public) is a two-sided process, including, firstly, the individual's assimilation of social experience, the system of social ties by entering the social environment and, secondly, active reproduction of the system of social connections by an individual in the process of activity.
Traditionally, this problem was studied in sociology, social psychology and philosophy.
The integration of the problem of socialization in the field of general scientific knowledge presupposes the consideration of this problem from the point of view of different scientific approaches.
If we generalize the problem of socialization in sociology as a whole, then it consists first of all in describing it from the point of view of a social phenomenon reflecting the essence of various interpersonal, intergroup relations in a society at a particular stage of its development and the process of assimilation specific social experience of society in different socio-economic conditions of its existence. From the point of view of sociology, a man, assimilating social experience, values, norms, attitudes of society and social groups, not only enriches himself with experience, but also realizes himself as a person, acquires readiness for transformational activity.
From the point of view of psychology, primarily social psychology, socialization is seen as the process of adapting a person to a social environment, to interact with others like himself. And in this sense, social psychology is interested in the stages of human adaptation, the reaction of its psychology to the impact of certain socialization factors. Psychology regards socialization as a process of development of the human psyche in ontogeny, as a process of formation of the individual, personality.
There is also a point of view on socialization in pedagogical science.
The pedagogical aspect of socialization is integrated with the philosophical and psychological.The problem of socialization in science can be viewed integratively, it can be attributed to the socio-psychological (as the development of the psyche of the individual in ontogeny), and to the socio-pedagogical (as the highest level of upbringing) phenomena. Because of this, socialization can not be reduced only to development or only to education. Along with the various organized effects of society on the formation of the individual, i.e. with upbringing, socialization includes elements of spontaneous, unorganized influence of the environment on a person.
In pedagogical science, socialization takes its place and is viewed as a pedagogical phenomenon with pedagogical regularities of its influence on man through education and upbringing. From this point of view, pedagogy considers socialization from the point of view of a specific impact on a person by certain means and, to a greater extent, is not only interested in the descriptive characterization of the content of the process (the procedure of habituation or adaptation of the person to the environment as such, the stages, cyclicity or periodicity of this adaptation; in the course of adaptation of man to the environment, etc.), but above all, under the influence of what a person changes, by what means is this adaptation implemented oveka to the environment. Pedagogy is interested in the levels of socialization, and consequently, what forms and methods can control the transition from one level of socialization of a person to another. In socialization, scientists note such properties as spontaneity and controllability. Of course, pedagogy as a science about the laws of pedagogical influence on a person, without renouncing the spontaneity of socialization, is more interested in the managed component of it. Prioritizing the consideration of socialization from the point of view of a controlled process, it certainly requires a clear definition of the means, forms and methods of its manageability, i.e. pedagogical influence on a person in the process of his socialization.Pedagogy, unlike sociology and psychology, describing the essence of this social phenomenon, considers the following state of socialization: what a person can acquire and acquire in the course of adaptation to the social environment in the process of socialization. In this case, pedagogy concentrates its attention on individualization as a new acquisition by a person as a result of its socialization into society or the social environment. She is interested in the means, forms and methods of forming knowledge, skills and abilities of a person in the process of socialization, the characteristics of the educational process and its components.
Socialization of personality is a central problem and social pedagogy, designed to harmonize the relationship in the link "personality - society". Traditionally, social pedagogy is a science about the pedagogical conditions of socialization in the process of social education, taking into account all factors of the environment.
Social pedagogy in the consideration of socialization, certainly relies on a pedagogical approach in assessing the means, forms and methods of forming knowledge, skills and abilities of a person, but, unlike traditional pedagogical, realizes a socio-pedagogical approach, characterized by a focus on the social environment and the use of its resources and resources in the educational process in the interests of socialization of the individual. In this case, social pedagogy examines the very social environment to which a person adapts as a means of pedagogical influence on him with a view to solving his problems of socialization.
Indeed, a real mistake is made, which is made with an integrative approach in using the opportunities of the social environment, when it is allowed that the means used and the forms of resolving the problems of the individual are inconsistent with the content of the problem itself. For example, for all it is clear that the situation is completely incorrect when psychological problems of the person are solved by medical means or legal problems of the person are resolved by psychological means. The problems of human socialization, the source of which is, as a rule, the social environment, is best solved by the resources and opportunities of the social environment itself.
From this perspective, social pedagogy as an integrative science embodies both sociality and pedagogy.
Sociality of social pedagogy lies in its organizational side of socialization - ensuring the manageability of the interaction between the educational process of a person and the society, and the pedagogical nature of it is manifested in the content of this human interaction with the pedagogical potential of the society, significant for socialization of the person.
In the considered plan, social pedagogy acts as a science on the harmonization of pedagogical conditions and approaches to social and personal-individual development of man in the interests of man and society, using all the opportunities and reserves of a person and society.
In the social pedagogy an important place is occupied by the problem of the correlation of the pedagogical potential of the society and the socialization of man.Socialization as a field of sociological knowledge has two sources - biological and social (adapting the human body to the external and internal environment, adapting a person to the requirements of the social environment).
Solving these problems occurs in the process of human development through education and upbringing. For pedagogy, socialization is not only a significant area for the realization of the pedagogical process (education, upbringing) in human development, but also with basic scientific knowledge for the achievement of pedagogically expedient goals of the specialist's activity.
An important tool in the pedagogical process is the social environment itself (community of people, society). The pedagogical potential of the society acts as a peculiar means of resolving the problems of socialization of the individual in the process of education and upbringing. Integration of the sociological theory of socialization and socium and pedagogical knowledge about teaching and upbringing allows us to identify the social and pedagogical conditions of socialization of a person at all stages of its development.
From the point of view of socialization in pedagogical science, an important place is given to the difficulties of transferring social experience from one generation to another, mastering the social environment and solving the problems of socialization of various etymologies that arise in humans and, consequently, have social and pedagogical content. These are, first of all, the problems of shaping social needs, social abilities and social values; problems of social, professional, school disadaptation; problems of different age levels of socialization of the individual; problems of forming a healthy lifestyle; problems of homelessness of minors in a difficult social situation; problems of orphans, children left without parental care, etc.
When solving all such problems and situations, pedagogical science refers to the potential of the society, primarily to its pedagogical (educational) potential.Establishing interaction with the potential of the society for solving the problems of the individual or group, pedagogical science cooperates with sociology (using knowledge of society and socialization, as well as methods of sociology, on the one hand, to collect information about available problems of socialization, on the other - to collect information about the potential opportunities and resources of the society, significant for resolving the problems of the individual or group); psychology (using knowledge about the psyche of the personality and psychology of the group, as well as methods of psychology to collect information on the psychological characteristics of the personality, significant for understanding the problems of its socialization); mathematics (using knowledge about the methods of mathematical statistics for processing the obtained data on the potential of the society, about the person and the problems of its socialization).
Socialization and society from the point of view of pedagogical science are conjugated areas of sociological knowledge, significant both for understanding the difficulties of a person when learning social experience, and when choosing pedagogically expedient forms and methods for overcoming them on the basis of realizing the potential of the society or if it is necessary to restore it subsequent implementation.
Considering the correlation of the concepts pedagogical (educational) potential of the society and socialization as applied to the United States reality, one can find that the result of their embodiment is an active social position that presupposes the need for children and adults first of all to learn the depths of the spiritual culture of their Fatherland, the transfer of which to new generations of United Statess throughout the ages occurs in the process of social upbringing.
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