This chapter describes the content of sociological knowledge about the society, its place and role in pedagogical science and its significance for social pedagogy. In particular, it considers: society in the structure of social relations; socium as a social and pedagogical phenomenon; Characterization of the potential of the socium, the pedagogical and educational potential of the society. The chapter outlines the content of the process of studying the pedagogical potential of the society, significant for the socialization of the individual, the development and restoration of the pedagogical potential of the society in the interests of socialization of the individual, as well as the process of realizing the pedagogical potential of the society in resolving the problems of socialization of the individual.

As a result of studying the chapter, the learner must:


• features of the understanding of society in pedagogical science as a field of scientific knowledge;

• the main structural elements of the society and their significance for the pedagogical process;

• the main characteristics of the society as a medium of human relations;

be able to

• analyze and study the main varieties of socium potential, features of the pedagogical potential of the society;


• A system of knowledge about the content and structure of the society, the role and place of society in social pedagogy.

Socium in the structure of social relations

Basic concepts : social environment, society, peer group, children and adolescents, social relations, interpersonal, family, interdepartmental, pedagogical mission in the system of social relations, intraspecific subsystem of society, interindividual subsystem socium, metaindividual subsystem of society, classification of socio-pedagogical processes', the pedagogical potential of the society, the educational potential of the society, the educational potential of the society, the creative potential of the society, the scientific potential of the society .

Social environment as a medium of human relations

The concept of environment in the scientific literature is considered, first, as a set of conditions, circumstances surrounding the individual environment; secondly, as a combination of living conditions, the concrete, physical, natural and sociocultural space in which a person manifests an individuality, is realized as a person.

The society, in turn, is defined as a large stable community, characterized by the unity of living conditions of people, the common place of residence and the presence of a common culture as a result.

The society has always been and remains the sphere of existence of both institutional and non-institutional formations.

In social pedagogy, the socium is considered primarily from the point of view of the process of including the child in it through the nearest social environment, into society as a whole, to solve the problems of its socialization by pedagogical means, methods and forms of influence.

From this position, it becomes important that the relationship of a person and the external social conditions of his life in a society have the character of interaction. Social environment is not just a street, houses and things, the location of which is enough for a person to know, in order to enter it, feel comfortable there. The social environment is also a very different community of people, characterized by a special system of relations and rules that apply to all members of the community. Therefore, on the one hand, a person brings into it something of his own, affects it to some extent, changes it, and on the other - and the environment affects a person, his actions, manifestations: can accept or reject; can treat him kindly, or maybe hostile.

The ratio of the environment to a person is determined by how much its behavior corresponds to the expectations of the environment. The behavior of a person is largely determined by the position he takes in society.

In the sphere of human relations, various social roles are assimilated, which is the most important component of the process of socialization of the individual. However, the difficulty lies in the fact that in society there are roles, not only approved by him, but also those that contradict social norms and values. Therefore, in the process of formation and development, a child can develop both positive social roles and negative ones.

The role of a family member should be attributed to positive roles. In the family, the child learns several such roles: the son or daughter, brother or sister, nephew, grandson, and also gets acquainted with the roles of father and mother, grandparents, etc.

The next important role that the child learns in the process of his socialization, his development, is a member of the collective. In kindergarten and school, in the sports section and children's public organizations, in communicating with peers, the child learns the roles of a member of the collective, friend, student, leader, and many others.

Family as the highest form of development of human relations affects the personality of adults, not only in connection with the upbringing of children. A great role in the family is played by the relationships between the representatives of different generations, and also within the same generation (spouses, brothers, sisters, grandfathers, grandmothers). The family as a small social group influences its members, primarily with its own means, the main of which are the intra-family opinion, family traditions, intra-family sentiments, intra-family relations. Simultaneously, each of them with his personal qualities, his behavior affects the life of the family.

Family is of great importance for the development of the individual. Children who are deprived of the opportunity to directly and permanently participate in the life of a small group of people close to them, lose a lot. This is particularly noticeable in young children living outside the family - in orphanages and other institutions of this type. The development of the personality of these children often proceeds in a different way than in children who are brought up in the family. Mental and social development of these children is sometimes delayed, and emotional - slows down. The same can happen to an adult person, since the lack of permanent personal contacts is the essence of loneliness, becomes the source of many negative phenomena and causes serious personal disturbances.

It is known that the behavior of many people is influenced by the presence of others. Many individuals behave in the presence of other people differently than when they are alone. And if a person feels benevolent, kind attitude of those present, then he often has a certain incentive to such actions, which will cause the approval of the people around him and help him to appear in the best light. If a person feels a malevolent attitude, then he has resistance, manifested in a variety of ways. Well-bred person overcomes this protest by conscious effort, action, behavior.

The need for communication is the internal basis of personal relationships between people. It undergoes profound changes in the ontogenesis process: from the "revitalization complex" from a newborn to a system of personal and business relationships based on sympathies, attachments, responsible dependency, intellectual, spiritual intimacy and love in adolescence and adolescence. This need is met in different children not equally. Some develop in an atmosphere of universal attention, approval, psychological support, others grow in an atmosphere of emotional coldness, isolation and total rejection. For each child in the formal team there is a unique situation of communication and interpersonal relationships, each child occupies a certain position in the peer group. Children and adolescents have different experiences with their peers: some do not realize their real situation and idealize their relationships with others, while others, on the contrary, hyperbolize the situation and often suffer failures from one sphere of relations to another.

The child's social environment is constantly expanding and changing. Not only the class collective, family, inner circle make up its social world. Especially significantly changing social networks in adolescence. In them he can manifest himself in various roles, positions and conditions, both positive and negative. Adolescents who are dissatisfied with interpersonal relations in the family and school, rejected because of their insolvency in socially approved activities, are prone to group formation at the place of residence where most of their interests are satisfied, the social activity that is not realized in school is expressed.

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