Speaking and writing, Keeping notes - Psychology and pedagogy

Speaking and Writing

Oral speech is different from writing. When radio broadcasting appeared in our country, the prepared texts were simply read into the microphone. However, during the Great Patriotic War such communication with the people was clearly not good. It took a living human word, born this minute and coming from the very heart. That's why speakers on the radio resorted to live improvisational speech. It, of course, has its own peculiarities: oral speech is often intonationally rich, expressive. In ancient Greece, oratory was given great importance. Politics had to speak at the council meeting and at people's meetings, the commander - before the army, the private person - before the court, as well as at festivities, friendly meetings, wake-up. In this connection, the search for the effectiveness of speech began and the desire to theoretically justify the possibility to teach eloquence and to master it.

About the brilliant rhetorical talent of Cicero is evidenced not only by more than 50 fully preserved speeches, but also by his writings on rhetoric. In accordance with the Roman rhetorical tradition, Cicero advanced the ideal of a well-rounded orator-philosopher, combining the qualities of statesman and politician. Speakers sought to give speech stylistically correct form. Modern man is obliged to possess not only the art of correct written presentation, but also oral speech with its rich intonations, beauty and expressiveness.

Maintaining Summaries

When a lecturer lectures, students keep notes. Of course, there is a huge variety of approaches to this genre of learning. Some students try to write down every phrase of the teacher, they tried to "keep up", fix everything that is said in the lecture. As a result, these students do not understand well at all about what is at stake. They are completely captured by technical work. In the summary there are forced omissions, incomplete phrases, meaningless turns. Such keeping of abstracts is unproductive. Usually this is how first-year students work, who are not yet accustomed to the requirements of the university and try to do everything the way it was in school.

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Some students do not try to write down the teacher word for word. They make individual notes, write down the phrases that sounded in the audience, fix their attention only when, in their opinion, the most important is stated. When a student rereads such a summary, he discovers that he did not "catch" the full meaning of what was being studied. Between individual records there are no logical connections. It is not clear how the separate provisions of the lecture are correlated. Private notes do not help to clarify the teacher's thoughts.

How to keep a summary? First, it must be understood that keeping records does not necessarily mean fixing what sounds in the audience. The student should follow the teacher's idea and designate the general logic of the presentation. The abstract is not a transcript, but a way of working with the material. The student's own thoughts, questions, doubts and ambiguities may be present here. During the recording it is important to keep the main message bar. What were we talking about? What were the main ideas in the audience? What is the relationship between them? Did evidence prove convincing? Such kinds of recordings enable independent and active work with abstracts.

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